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The Madrid herald. (Madrid, N.Y.) 1904-1918, January 17, 1918, Image 7

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THE MADRID HERALD. €ALVES WITH WHITE SCOURS Result of Inflammation of Lining of Fourth Part -or Trie Digestive Stomach. White scours In. calves is a form of •diarrhea. It is the result of an in- flammation of the lining of the fourth part or true digestive stomach, and is generally caused by changing the calf's milk or giving' cold or skim milk when- not used to it. The ma- nure is very thin and of a yellowish- white color. The calf has pains, breathes heavily and groans at times, grits its teeth and keeps looking around at its sides. Try to discover the cause of the trouble, and if from a change of milk or giving it too cold, «pply this treatment: Give the calf good, warm milk to dririk, following with two ounces of raw linseed oil, two ounces of lime wa- ter, one dram of laudanum. Mix and give as a drench. If this does not give relief follow with one dram of lawianum and two ounces of lime water. Mix and give three times a 4ay In a little milk as a drench. Keep tip this treatment and see that the animal Is kept dry and warm until it Is better. WARM WATER FOR DAIRY COW Cheaper to Heat Supply Than for Animals to Do It Themselves With Expensive Feeds. .North Dakota Agricultural College Bul- letin.) A good supply of clean, fresh water should always be at hand for dairy cows. Much water is needed for the high-producing milch cow owing to the nature of her product, about 87 per cent of which is water. It should be handy at all times, and in the winter, if the tank is outside, heat should be applied to take the chill off the water. Cows will drink more water if warmed to 60 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit than if made to drink ice water. A tank heater -can be provided at low cost that will keep water at proper temperature, thereby saving feed and energy of the animal. It is cheaper to warm ice wa- ter than to allow the cow to warm it with high-priced feed. LEADING CLASSES OF COWS Jersey Produces Lightest Calves and Holsteins Heaviest — Average Weight of Animals. Taking the leading classes of dairy cows, the Ayrshire, Jersey, Holstein and Guernsey, we find the Jersey pro- duces the lightest calves and the Hol- stein the heaviest. They rank about as follows: Holstein, Ayrshire, Guernsey Champion Jersey Cow. and Jersey. The male calves are the heaviest, running as an average 90 pounds for' the Holsteins, 78 pounds for Ayrshire, 70 pounds for the Guern- sey and 62% pounds for the Jersey, while the heifer calves average 88. 71%, 69 and 60.7 pounds. REMEDY FOR CHAPPED TEATS Carefully Wash With Warm, Soft Wa- ter Containing Disinfectant— Dry and Apply Salve. Chapped and sore teats of any kind should be carefully washed with warm soft water containing a little disinfec- tant. Dry them carefully and apply a little salve. The salve may be just ordinary vaseline; it may be any of the carbolic acid salves purchased in the drug store, or it may be made up of three parts of lard and one part of tur- pentine. This salve protects the teat during the time between mllklngs. It excludes uir and keeps the teats from drying and cracking and the surface of the teats become smooth and soft. In- stead of being uneasy during milking, the cow will stand quietly and show no discomfort of any kind from this source. ADD SUCCULENCE TO RATION Where Corn Silage Is Not Available Feeding Small Potatoes Will In- crease Milk Flow. Potatoes add succulence to the dairy ration. Whore corn silage Is not avail- able and there are plenty of small po- tatoes, a peck a day will give a marked Increase In milk flow. They should be Introduced into the ration gradually, and should be run through a root cut- ter to avoid the possibility of choking the animal. Roughage for Cows. Give the cows all the fodder-corn or second-crop clover hay they will oat at night, and let them run on the pas- lures ns long as they can get a good bite, and do not pouch the soft ground. Treatment for Scours. Whpn a calf shows the first signs of scours the milk should bo reduced one-half or, more, and then gradually increased again as the calf improves. First Sign of Scours. The first sign of Indigestion or scours among calves Is usually the character- istic foul-smelling dung. Cause of 8cours. The common scours, or indigestion, may umiully be traced to faulty meth- od's In feeding the young calf. SPRAY IN WINTER FOR SAN JOSE SCALE \L*E (Prepared by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) The San Jose scale, in the absence of proper treatment, will quickly bring about the death of many plants of eco- nomic Importance, Its discovery, there- fore, whether in orchards or on prized fruit trees and other plants in the yard, should cull for prompt steps to- ward Its control. It has been amply demonstrated that the scale may be very successfully controlled by on» thorough treatment during the dor- mant period each year. On account of the general distribution of the pest extermination measures are, in most cases, out of the question. Complaint sometimes comes from orchardists who have the scale to con- tend with that the control of the insect is neglected by their neighbors, and they believe this neglect adds material- ly to their own work. Undoubtedly the scaie will spread from orchard to prchard, but thorough annual spray- ings will prevent important injury ir- respective of neglect in adjacent or- chards. Where plants are thoroughly incrust- sd, with consequent death of branches and stunting of growth, it will general- ly be advisable to dig out the trees at once and replace with new ones. Be- fore spraying infested trees the dead and weakened wood should be pruned DUt, which will simplify the work of spraying and will hasten the forma- tion of new, sound wood. San Jose Scale Washes. There are several scale washes which may be employed in the control of the insect, and the ODe should be selected which can be most conveni- ently used and which is economical under the circumstances. Thus, for spraying on a large scale, the orchard- ists could properly afford expenditures for the construction of cooking outfits for lime-sulphur wash which would not be justified where only a few trees wore involved. For a few plants it would be better to use some one of the prepared washes put up by manu- facturers. In fact, many large or- chardists prefer to use sprays of this class in preference to making the washes at home. The possibility of injury to the trees from the sprays must also be borne in mind. All treat- ments, if possible, should be made dur- ing the dormant period (that is to say, in late fall or early spring, or even during the winter in mild climates), since at this time washes may be ap- plied at much greater strengths than when the trees are in foliage. The aim is to use the wash about as strong as the tree will stand, thereby secur- ing the maximum killing effect upon the Insects. Used in this way the washes of the petroleum or kerosene series are most likely to cause injury to the fruit buds and tender twigs, and the lime-sulphur washes least like- ly to do so. Fish-oil soap sprays as recommended for dormant trees are comparatively safe, though reports are at hand of injury to fruit buds, espe- cially from fall applications. Stone fruits, such as peach, plum, etc., are more susceptible to injury from sprays than apple and pear, and on the for- mer the lime-sulphur sprays should always he used. Petroleum and mis- clble oils are more frequently used on apple and pear, and owing to their spreading and penetrating qualities are perhaps more effective in destroy- ing the scales on the terminal twigs, which are infested to a greater extent in the case of these fruits. The sev- eral sprays in use are: (1) Lime-sul- phur wash series; (2) petroleum-oil series (including miscible oils), and (3) soap washes. In Farmers' Bulletin 630 instructions are given on the making and applica- tion of sprays. PEACH TREE BADLY DAMAGED BY SAN JCSE SCALE. MILLET INJURIOUS AS EXCLUSIVE SEED Hay May Be Used as Part of Ra- tion, but Feeding Alone Is Unsafe, Expert Says. (GEORGE H. GLOVKR, Colorado Agri- cultural College, Fort Collins, Colo- rado.) The belief is prevalent that millet fed to mares will cause abortion and is otherwise injurious. The North Du- kota experiment station several years ago issued a bulletin on the injurious effects of a continuous ration of millet hay on horses. The conclusions reached were In substance that horses when fed exclusively on millet hay for a considerable period developed irrita- tion of the kidneys, swelling and In- fusion of blood into the joints, and finally softening of the bones. Dr. 15. F. Ladd reported having found In millet hay, ut all stages of growth, a glucosid called seturlan. Furmers generally believe that it is the seeds of millet that cause the trouble but It seems that tills claim is not substanti- ated. Millet liny as a part ration is safe and makes an excellent adjunct to other rouglmge for horses but from What Information we have on the sub- ject at this time It would seem unwise to feed it to horses as an exclusive ration. MORE AND BETTER PASTURES Many Farmers Cultivating Land That Would Pay More In Grasp,—Re- stores Thin 8olls. There Is need of more nud better pastures. Many furmerfl lire cultivat- ing land Hint would pny better In pas- ture where high-grade or purebred live stock may he maintained. It Is sur- prising how grass will restore thin, worn soil. After a few years pasture land,may be cultivated again and usu- ally the yield of crops will be In- creased considerably. PRUNE APPLE TREES IN WINTER SEASON Annual Heavy Dormant Pruning Found Beneficial From the Growth Standpoint. \Extensive experiments made at the West Virginia station throw new light upon pruning. These investigations verify many of the theories commonly accepted and give new facts with ref- erence to pruning apple trees. A summary of bulletin 159 of the West \Virginia station says: This bulletin is a preliminary re- port of a pruning experiment cover- ing a period of four years and embrac- ing 300 apple trees of various ages. Study has been made of the effects on vigor of dormant pruning, summer pruning at different times, and com- binations of dormant and summer pruning. Heavy annual dormant pruning re- sulted In stranger terminal growth than lighter pruning on trees a{ all ages. In the study of trees up to five and six yours of age it was found (hat an- nual heavy dormant' pruning was bene- ficial from the growth standpoint for the first two or three years, after which It dwarfed growth so that by the end of the period the lightly pruned trees showed a strikingly greater Increase In trunk diameter, branch diameter, size of top, and to- tal annual growth. DRIVE HORSES ON LONG TRIP Let Animals Start Slowly and Gradu- ally Increase Pace—Journey Is Thus Shortened. In making n long drive, let the horses start out slowly for the first few miles. You can then Increase thoir speed, and the trip will be made In a shorter time than If they had been driven fast at the sturt. PULLING POWER OF HORSES Experiments in California Give Inter- esting Results—Concrete Offers Least' Resistance. [By B. B. HOUSE, Colorado Agricultural College, Fort Collins.) A very interesting experiment has recently been concluded in California to determine just how much a horse pulls when he draws a ton. A good draught team was used for this purpose. The horses weighed 1,600 pounds each. They were hitched to Dn State Highway From Colorado Springs to Canon City, Cal. an ordinary farm wagon, and pulled a load of 6,000 pounds over different kinds of roads. The wagon was a standard farm wagon with steel axles of equal length, wheels 38 and 46 'nches in diameter, and four-inch tires. A recording dynamometer, known as Mm Iowa type, was used to register the tractive force of the team. This instrument makes a record of the re- sistance on a strip of paper under a recording pencil, and after the test, the total pull of the team can be read off in pounds. The record of the test is as follows: On a concrete road, unsurfneed, in excellent condition, the total pull on the load was 83 pounds, or 27.6 pounds per ton. On a concrete road with three-eighth Inch surface of nsplialtic oil and screenings, road in excellent condition, the total pull was 147.0 pounds or 49.2 pounds per ton. On the ordinary macadam road in excellent condition, the total pull was 193 pounds or 64.3 pounds per ton. For a graveled road, compact, and In good condition, the total pull was 225 pounds or 75 pounds per ton. An earth road, firm, with one and one-half Inches of fine, loose dust, flip total pull was 270 pounds or 92 pounds per ton. An earth road, with mud 4 to 0 Inches deep, but soil firm underneath, the total pull was 054 pounds or 218 pounds per ton. On graveled road, before the gravel had been compacted, but when it was In ordinary loose condition after It had been placed upon the road, the total pull was 789 pounds or 203 pounds per ton. The above shows very well what great advantages good roads have on the hauling properties of a team. CHECK HEAVY WATER FLOW Catch-Drain Should Be Constructed on Side of Hills to Carry Flow to Ends of Cut. On the side hills where the flow of wuler is heavy It should be kept from reaching the road by constructing a catch-drain a few feet buck and above the edge of the cut. Tills will carry the water along to the ends of the cut and thus keep it off the road. If the cut Is u long one, the water In the catch- drain can be disposed of at Intervals by dropping It through a pipe or gut- ter Into the culverts. BUREAUS FOR FARM Organizations That Make County Agents Effective. Keep Ditches Open. Broad and shallow ditches with flat slopes constructed with a uniform Wilde are better than deep, narrow ditches constructed with steep hunks, riivo attention to keeping the ditches open. A Dairy Mistake. Buying cows and selling them u» fust HK they stop milking never built up n high-class dairy business. The city milk producer Is not u true dairyman; he Is more a speculator In feeda and cows. Ideas Outlined in Guide Recently Pub- lished by Agricultural Department Adapted to Various Condi- tions. (Prepared by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) The counties which have been most active in co-operating with their coun- ty agents are, with rare exceptions, the ones which are reaping the great- est benefits from their services. Ex- perience shows that help and advice of the farmers themselves are neces- sary to the success of county agent work, and the support of both rural and urban population is needed. The means of securing this local support whi.ch has been found most effective in the extension work in the northern and western states, officials of the United States department of agricul- ture say, is to establish a county or- ganization usually known as a \faim bureau.\ In a guide recently pub- lished by the department and known as \Handbook of Farm Bureau Organi- zation for County Agricultural Agents,\ detailed suggestions are giv- en for forming such an organization. The plan outlined can be adapted read- ily to the various conditions of differ- ent counties. It may he established in counties having inefficient organiza- tions, in counties contemplating the employment of an agent, and in places where the agent is now -unsupported by a local county organization. Functions of Organization. The chief functions of a county or- ganization, as outlined in the hand- book are: 1. To co-ordinate the efforts of ex- isting local agricultural forces, either organized or unorganized, and to or- ganize new lines of effort. It does not supplant any existing organizations or compete with them, but establishes a clearing house through which all may increase their efficiency without in any way surrendering their individuality. 2. To bring to the agent the coun- sel and co-operation of the best farm- ers in the county in planning and exe- cuting an agricultural improvement program. 3. To fiirnish the necessary local machinery for easily and quickly reaching every community in the coun- ty with information of value to that community or to the county as a whole. 4. To encourage self-help through developing and exercising leadership in the rural affairs of each community. 5. To reveal to all the people of the county the agricultural possibilities of the county and how they may be real- ized. HARROW SOIL AFTER PLOWED To Insure Satisfaction in Many Ways Furrows Should Be Gone Over Before Dried Out. The plow and the harrow should be kept closer together In operation than is the case with those who wait until the field has been completely plowed before applying the harrow. If it is at all convenient to do so, the harrow should be run over the newly turned furrows before the fresh earth has dried on the surface. This will Insure greater satisfaction in several Good Team for Plowing. ways. If the ground turns up lumpy iho large clods can be crushed by the harrow better while damp than when dry. When much trash has been plowed under thp soil dries very quickly, be- cause the refuse underneath holds up the soil unci makes air holes and pits. The harrow will adjust the soil and arrange the trash much more satisfac- torily by using It us soon as possible after plowing. It retards evaporation, and the little pits and holes will also fill quicker and easlpr. TOOL SHEDS MOST VALUABLE Shelter Costs Comparatively Little When Considering Damage to Unsheltered Tools. A tool shed costs little compared to the risk of neglecting the Implements. Hinders, mowers, buy presses, tractors, sllugo cutters and other machines rep- resent considerable cnpltul and If is economy to shelter and care for them when not In use. The shed Is really Insurance upon Implements from sun, rain and rust, and there Is another ad- vantage beside the loss and deteriora- tion, and that Is saving time. Alfalfa Growing Essential. Winter hardiness Is one of the es- sentials t« tilfalfa growing la this country-' 00(XXXXXX)0(X>QOOQOOOQOOOOOC SQMEPOtlLTRY DISEASES. When the crop is hard and un- yielding there is danger of the bird becoming crop, bound;'\ When the joints are hot and swollen and the fowl is disin- clined to stand, rheumatism has taken hold. When the nostrils are clogged with dirt and the eyes water, ward off a possible case of croup by timely treatment. If the case is bad apply the hatchet and bury the carcass. When the bird seems lame and has a small swelling in its foot, remove to a house with no perches and oblige it to roost on a bed of straw. Bumhle-foot is easily cured in the early stages If the cause is at once removed. When a hen seems to drown down behind and goes repeated- ly to the nest without laying, she is usually suffering from a disorder of thj oviduct, and might as well be killed and eat- en. When the hen seems giddy and turns round and round, she is probably suffering from apop- lexy. When the bird has leg weak- ness, with no disorder of the liv- er, feed lighter and give plenty of bone-forming material. IMPORTANT TO GIVE VARIETY Duplicate Spring Conditions as Near as Possible to Obtain Eggs in' Winter Season. Everybody gets eggs in the spring. Why? Because spring is the natural laying season. If we want eggs at other times of the year we must \fool\ the hen by duplicating spring condi- tions as nearly as possible. Variety is important in the winter ration. A hen craves and seeks dif- ferent kinds of food. In the spring and summer when she ranges on the farm she gets a variety, but in the winter, when there is no grass or clo- •••'!' :v: '.# : 'V ' --•••.' '.- •'}?$£•.'*'t '''•'•''' : \••!•; ^gjgaai -^alrii IM'^MJWWW uSnBwwSi iSiff '&& ' ypMygfep •« '<*£ H^/p^sfp^^ ^• v it : ®&S$k s&^ySi) 'MM&SM §S»& : &£& \ >'• ^is^it '-.^•-•'•\'•x , y-jt. •'• i\ • - i-':^.-:2$&!&&^ Good Farm Flock. ver, no bugs or worms, when the wa- ter is frozen over, when the snow is on the ground so that she cannot pick up a bit of gravel and sand, these things must be furnished in her feed. A hen is different from most ani- mals. She will balance her own ration if given an opportunity. PROPER CARE OF MACHINERY Farm Implements Depreciate More in Value From Neglect Than From Actual Use. Farm machinery depreciates in value more rapidly from poor care than from actual use. That is, a larger part of the 10 per cent annual depreciation *s caused by exposure than by use. A 160-acre farm needs about $1,000 worth of machinery. Ten per cent depreciation means $100 every year and more than $50 of this is lost through lack of care. Sheds for this machin- ery would cost about $200, which at 6 per cent a year would mean $12. The difference between $50 and $12 cannot all be credited to profit, for part of the care of machinery lies In labor and material. Still there would be a fair margin. Housing, repairing at the proper time, and painting the wooden parts are three essentials In the care of machinery. GOOD RACKS FOR SEED CORN Wooden Affairs in Which Ears Arf Placed on Separate Shelves Are Convenient Wooden sped racks, in which the ears are stored in rows on separata shelves, are convenient dryers, and have no drawbacks In a dry, breezy place, although the air cannot circu- late freely on all sides and dampness may he held where the row of kernels rests on the wood. WRINKLE VARIETIES OF PEAS Soon as Ground Becomes Dry Enough for Thorough Preparation Plant Them In Garden. While the smooth varieties of garden peas are capable of standing more cold and wet than the wrinkled sorts, they are scarcely worth the planting, As soon JIH the ground becomes dry enough for thorough preparation sow the wrinkle variety of peus. Starting Plants. On a Bmall scale, vegetable seeds may be sturted In small .boxes or flats placed under the kitchen stove. POULTRY SOUR MILK FOR LAYING HENSJ Most Excellent Substitute for Meitf Scrap and Will Give Good Re- turns During Winter. While the production of eggs dur^ Ing the winter when high ©rices pre- vail is the'result of proper breeding, hatching, rearing and care, proper feeding will always tend to stimulate* egg production at that season. One reason ^tvhy hens lay well ia spring and summer is that they are* able to obtain animal protein in the form of bugs and worms. During fall and winter, therefore, the poultry feeder should attempt to imitate summer feed condition's. The commer- cial poultry man supplies animal pro- tein by feeding meatscraps, but the farmer often falls to provide this feed. Skim milk, preferably sour, is a most excellent substitute for meat- scrap and will give good returns when fed to laying hens. Numerous experi- ments have shown that laying hens fed skim milk will double in egg pro- duction similar hens fed no form oi animal protein. According to F. D. Crooks of the Pennsylvania State college school of agriculture and experiment station, the exact value of soiir milk as as source of protein, is difficult to state. Numerous feeding trials, however, place its value at 50 cents to $2 per 100 pounds. Skim milk lowers the cost of pro- ducing a dozen eggs. On the farm it may mean the difference between profit and loss in connection with the farm flock. Sour milk has a medicinal effect also. It keeps hens in good health and helps prevent disease. SPROUTED OATS FOR FOWLS Recommended as Green Feed for Poul- try by Specialist of Department of Agriculture. The poultry specialists of the TJ. S. department of agriculture advise that sprouted oats fed as green feed to hens confined to yards cost about Vi cents per hen a year and one cent per dozen eggs, not including any charges for labor and equipment. In the experiments of these specialists Device for Sprouting Oats. the hens ate on an average in one year about 1.3 pounds of oyster shell and 0.7 of a pound of grit, whi.ch to- gether cost about one cent per hen. CLEAN-CUT POULTRY HOUSES l_et Only Odor Be Suggestive of Clean- liness—Lice and M'tes Will Increase Rapidly. Clean out the poultry houses, coops nnd nest's and thoroughly disinfect them. Keep them clean and let the only odor about them be one sugges- tive of cleanliness. The time Is at hand when lice and mites and blue- bugs will increase rapidly and overrun the place in a little while. The best weapon to fight them with Is cleanli- ness. SHELLS, GRIT AND CHARCOAL Too Many Farmers Do Not Realize ftn- portance of Supplying Egg- Making Materials. Too many people who raise poultry do not realize the Importance of sup- plying their flock with an abundance of oyster shells, grit and charcoal. In order for them to keep In the best of health and produce the best results, poultry must be well supplied with them. FOWLS TOO CLOSELY YARDED They Have Little Opportunity to Sup- ply Themselves With Necessary Amount of Grit. AVhen fowls are closely yarded, or during cold weather when the ground Is frozpn or covered with snow, they huve little opportunity to supply them- selves with any kind of grit or i(:g substitute and are liable to become sick, due to Indigestion. AVOID DAMPNESS IN HOUSES Dark Buildings, Lacking Direct Sun- light, Are Conducive to Disease —Clean Them Up. Pump houses, especially If dark and lacking direct sunlight, moldy litter, and filthy nests and roosts are con- ducive to disease. Chicken pox finds •\ good breeding place under such coa- litions. Clean up, and \let a little sunshine In!\ Cabbage for Fowls. Tn the event that there Is no cab- bage to spare for the fowls, by visit- 'ng a commercial gardener It Is al- most always possible to procure cull heads ut a small cost. Unprofitable Pullets. The pullets that huvi- not completely, matured and show signs of physical weakness are unprofitable to keep for I'M production ut the present price of feeds. Philadelphia recently paid $800 for a two-foot Btrlp of land needed to widen a park,

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