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The Madrid herald. (Madrid, N.Y.) 1904-1918, April 04, 1918, Image 7

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THE MADBrD HERALD. ir FEEDING YOUNG DAIRY STOCK Where Milk Is Not Available It Is Eco- ncmical to Supply Protein by Use of Legumes. (Prepared by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) It is * a common practice among dairymen to feed, skim milk until the calf is approximately sis months of ige. Usually the time of weaning de- pends upon the availability and cost of the milk. When milk is fed In abundance It furnishes the greater part of the pro- tein necessary for the growth of the animal. If no milk is fed It becomes necessary for the protein to be pro- vided from some other source. Prob- ably this can be done most econom- ically by the use of some legume, such as alfalfa, clover, soy beans, or cow- pea hay. When hay of this sort is not available i t is necessary to provide the bulk of the protein through a grain mixture. In either case, plenty of roughage should be supplied to the growing heifer at all times. During summer, when good pasture is avail- able, the heifer needs no supplement- ary feed, although a little hay and grain are sometimes advisable late in the season to insure steady growth. Part of the roughage should be sil- age, if it is available. A heifer of six months to one year of age will consume from 5 to 15 pounds of sil- age a day. The grain mixture used may be made up of (1) 3 parts of cracked corn, and 1 part wheat bran; (2) or 3 parts cracked corn, 1 part wheat bran, and 1 part ground oats; (3) or 3 parts cracked corn, 1 part wheat bran, 1 part ground oats, and 1 part liuseed meal; (4) or 4 parts cracked corn, 1 part wheat bran, 1 part ground oats, and 1 part blood meal. Either 1, 2, or 4, together with all the alfalfa, clover, or eowpea hay that the heifer will eat, makes a good ration. In case no leguminous hay such as that just mentioned can be ob- tained, No. 3 is advised, because it contains more protein. Another ex- Calves Should Be Encouraged to Eat Good Roughage at an Early Age. cellent grain mixture, to he used when such hay is lacking, is composed of 2 parts of cornmeal, 2 parts of lin- seed meal, and 1 part of hran. The quantity of grain to he fed de- pends very largely upon the individual animal's growth and condition, as well as upon the price ( of the grain. Some feeders desire a rapid growth of the young animals, and for this Teason feed heavily -with grain, while others are satisfied -with a slow growth and try to carry their young stock largely on roughage. Either extreme is un- -wise and a medium course between the two is advisable. A safe rule to fol-- low is to feed one pound of grain for the fiTSt hundredweight of the heifer and one-half pound for each addition- al hundredweight. After the heifer \reaches one year of age, the following rations are sug- gested: Cornmeal, fed according to the rule just mentioned, together with all the alfalfa, clover, or cowpeu hay that the animal -will consume. If no leg- uminous hay is available, grain com- posed of 2 parts cornmeal, 1 of bran, and 1 of linseed meal, gluten meal, or cottonseed meal, and 10 to 20 pounds of silage, together with all the dry roughage that Die animal can con- sume, will be found to be adequate. t T nder ordinary circumstances a gain of at least a pound a day from the time of weaning to the time of first calving is a good average for a dairy heifer. SHIPMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE Not Advisable to Ship Fresh Cows Long Distances Except in Fast Express Cars. Do not ship fresh cows long dls* tiincps unless in express cars under particularly favorable conditions. The expense involved naturally limits such operations to valuable purebred indi- viduals. Time and time again, as a result of being shipped shortly after freshening or so us to culve in transit, fresh cows have been ruined so far iiK (he next lactation has been con- cerned. Good and Inferior Cows. The fact that there are good cows mid inferior cows in all breeds is a Inelnr thiii must be given its full share Of t'OJjMlUWUl'IoIl. Successful Dairy Secret. Dlie \f the KecretK of successful •liiii'.WiiK I« How iiltc'iiiiwi t\ the wants ::i'l I'i'tiull'eiucUth lit Die herd. Watch Individual Cows. Y.;ii'''i I in- tin' iii'iipi'v physiological I''! upon llie individual COVVB ul tbi :''l|| J nil (<•< i). Herald Paste Garefolly Selected Articles, Contributed by Specialists (Special Information Service, United States Department of Agriculture.) . \A\ GOOD HOUSE FOR THE WAR LITTERS You Can Move the A-Shaped House on Its Runners From Field to Field or From a Dirty Place to a Clean Location. MOVABLE HOUSES SUITED TO HOGS A-Shaped Type Especially Adapt- ed to Beginner in Swine Business. GOOD IN SUMMER AND WINTER Front Can Be Closed in Colder Cli- mates—Afford Needed Shelter for Sow and Litter—Lanterns Will Supply Heat. Movable or colony hog houses are especially suited to the needs of the farmer just starting in the hog husi- ness and also for pig club members who aTe doing their part to help the 15 per cent increase needed in hog population. These houses, especially where the winters are mild, -will meet all the needs of hogs for shelter both from the hot sun of summer and the dampness and storm of winter. They can be moved from field to field as the pigs are changed from one grazing crop to another. Their use mates it easy to keep the Bogs healthy, as the house can'he moved as soon as one place becomes unclean. A-Shaped House. Two types—the box-shaped house and the A-shaped house—are described by specialists of the United States de- partment of agriculture in a Tecent publication. This article deals with the construction of the smaller or A-shaped shelter. The A-shaped house shown in the accompanying illustra- tion and plans, i s 8 feet -wide and 6 feet from back t o iront The founda- tion is made of three runners of 4 by 4-inch material or straight poles. A floor of 1-inch material is nailed to the three runners. Pieces 2 by 4 inches are nailed along the outside of the floor to keep the sides from spreading at the bottom. The sides are built on the ground and then setup. Bach side is made of six 1 by 12-inch boards 8 feet long. These are held together by two 2 by 4-inch crosspleces, one about 9 Inches from the top and the other about 3% feet. About 10 Inches from the bottom of the sides a 2 by 6-lnch piece is nailed edgewise and braced at the ends by blocks as shown in the illustration. This piece \will act as a guard rail and prevent the sow from laying on her pigs. The two sides are set up and fastened together by a saddle of two 1 by 6-inch boards. There should also be a board nailed across the front to help hold the sides. As a framework for the back, 2 by 4- inch pieces are placed upright 2 feet from each side and nailed to the floor and sides. A crossplece is put in 2 feet from the floor. The back boards are nailed to this framework and to the sides. A guard rail should be placed across the back the same as on the sides. The sides should be fastened firmly together so that no storm will blow them down. The cracks should be covered with batten. Guy wires should be put in place to keep the house from blowing over if in an ex- posed position. For Fattening Pigs. The A-type house is -very good for a few fattening pigs and may be used to house a sow and litter i n warmer climates. In sections where cold win- ters are experienced the front should be closed iu. This will make a good shelter for a sow and her spring litter. H the front is to be closed this should be decided before the house is built. This is necessary for two reasons. First, provision for ventilation should be made, -which can be done by insert- ing three or four 6-inch pieces of 2 by 4-inch material atthe apex and spiking the sides firmly to them, thus provid- ing a series of 2-inch spaces for venti- lation. The saddle-boards are raised. Second, the insertion of the blocks to provide for ventilation -will change the angle at -which the boards for the back are cut. In building the front proceed the same as -with the back. The door should be 22 inches by 3 feet. If the front is closed the window in the front should be on hinges so that it may be opened t o give -ventilation. If the weather i s severe a t farrowing time, one or two lighted lanterns hung in the top of the house will make it quite comfortable for the young pigs. GET THIS CIRCULAR ON MOVABLE SWINE HOUSES Proper housing is important in increasing hog production. Good houses reduce the amount of feed consumed and prevent losses from exposure, especially with the early spring Utters. \Movable Hog Houses,\ circular 302, office of the secretary of ag- riculture, just published, tells how to make two types of inex- pensive hog houses—the box- shaped and the \A\-shaped kind.. Write for this publication. Plan of A-Shaped Hog House; Closed Front on Left—Provision for Ventila- tion Shown in Small Diagram. MATERIAL NEEDED Pieces in ji 4 3 1 Total, 8lze (Inches). 1x12 2x1 2X5 lxfl 280 board foot of TO MAKE A-SHAPED 1- Length (Feet). Use. 16 Sides, back and floor 15 Batten 12 Frame-work 12 Guard rail Saddlcboard 1G Poles for runners lumber, 144 feet batten, 3 pules, and iOG HOUSE Total Measurement (Board feet). 208 .. 32 32 8 ufffssary nails. SUITABLE HOUSE FOR FOWLS Hens Should Be Comfortable, With Floor Space of 3 or 4 Squara Feet for Each Bird. (Prepared by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) The poultry flock should be comfort- ably but not expensively housed. A house which provides\ a floor space ofi 3 or 4 square feet per bird i s ample for the purpose,-and fowls are often suc- cessfully' kept with an .allowance no greater than 2% to 3 square feet. Houses must be dry and free from draft, but must allow ventilation. Often there is an unused shed or small building on the place which can easily be converter! into a chicken house. The front of the poultry house should be faced toward the south, if possible, so that the sun will shine into it. Per- fectly satisfactory houses can be made cheaply from piano boxes or other packing cases. Two piano boxes with the backs removed can be nailed to- gether and a door cut in the end. These boxes should be covered with a roofing paper in order to keep the house dry and to make it wind-proof. A portion of the door should be left open or cov- ered with a piece of muslin, so as to allow ventilation. Similar houses can be constructed of packing cases at a relatively small cost. A small amount of 2 by 4 or 2, by 3 lumber can. be pur- chased for framing. The box boards can be -applied for siding or sheathing and then covered with roofing paper. Where there is a board fence it is sometimes possible to take advantage of this by building the poultry house in the corner of the fence, and making the fence itself, with the cracks cov- ered by strips or battened, serve as the back and one side of the house. A cheap house 8 by 8 feet square can be made by 2 by 4-inch pieces and 12- inch boards. The 2 by 4 pieces are used for sills, plates, corner posts, and three rafters. No studding is required except that necessary to frame the Good Type of Poultry House. door and window space. The boards are run up and down and add suffi- cient stiffness to the house. They are used also for the roof and covered with roofing paper. The back and sides of the house also can be covered with Toofing paper, or the cracks can be covered with wooden battens or strips 1% to 3 inches wide. In the front of the house there should be left a win- dow or opening which can be closed, when desired, by a muslin screen or curtuln which serves as a protection against bad weather but allows -venti- lation. In the side a door should be provided which will allow entrance. A shed or single-slope roof is best be- cause easiest to build. A height of 6 feet in front and 4 feet in the rear is ample. If desired, the house may be built higher, so that it is more conveni- ent to work in; the increase in cost will be slight. The ventilator in the rear is not needed in the northern part of the country, hut is desirable iu the South, where summers are very warm. Such a house would be ample for a flock of 20 to 25 hens. It can be built cpuickly and easily and is cheap In construction. INSURE CHICKENS AND EGGS Farmer Who Hatches Early in Spring Seems to Have Best of Argument —Lay in Winter. An essential part of the endeavor to Insure more chickens and eggs is con- tained in the maxim—hatch early. The farmer who'hatches early In the spring, either by incubation or natural meth- ods, seems to have all the best of the argument. When chickens are hatched' early in the spring they mature In the fall and lay eggs in the winter. Then, in the spring, they are ready to hatch early. Late-hatched fowls are late In maturing, do not lay in the winter, and do not sit until late i n the follow- ing spring. SHEEP FLOCK OF BIG IMPORTANCE Attention. Must Be Given Wool and Mutton Qualities of Animals. INTEREST IN RAISING STOCK Don't Breed Slackers. Do not breed from slackers wheth- er they are poor layers or those which are inactive, go to roost early, come off the roost late. Basis of Feed. Bran and corn should be the basis Of poultry feed In consideration of present prices. Food for Chicks. In order for chicks to grow the best it is desirable l» have food of Boiue kind before them all the time. Bulletin Issued by Agricultural De- partment Discusses Breeds Like- ly to Meet Requirements of Various Localities. (Prepared by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) Mutton and wool qualities both must receive attention to bring the greatest returns from farm flocks of sheep. A system that Ignores either cannot be continuously successful. So asserts a bulletin, \Breeds of Sheep for the Farm,\ issued by the United States department of agricul- ture following the manifestation that recent market values for meat animals have caused a renewal in interest in the raising of live stock on farms. The bulletin aims to discuss sheep breeds so a s to inform those not familiar with them which breeds are likely to meet requirements. In many cases, the bulletin points out, mutton and wool will deserve equal consideration. In others either may be emphasized according to pe- culiarities in management, feeding and marketing conditions. Sparse pastur- age, expensive food and poor market- ing arrangements will make wool the first consideration, but if there is a good market for lambs and if the feed ^lli mmSSm ^^SSS£ First Prize Shropshire. and care that can be given are such as are needed, the bulletin points out that the mutton qualities are the im- portant things to look for in the breed- ing stock. Variations in wool values, says the bulletin, largely explain the increases and decreases in numbers of farm sheep in the past fifty years. At pres- ent, it is stated, many former raisers of commercial sheep who breed stock for wool are giving more attention to mutton than has been done in the past, and most of the new flocks be- ing established are of the mutton breeds. Community Breeding. It Is not to be expected, the bulle- tin points out, that all farmers in a county will select the same breed of sheep. It lists advantages, however, that may be realized if a number of farmers in a community adopt a com- mon plan of sheep raising and use Tarns of the same type, at least, if not of the same breed. If the lambs are similar and ready to ship at the same time a number of owners can join to- gether to fill a car or, if the number of lambs is large and the quality uniform, they will sell themselves, as the buyers will come for them. Another advantage in community breeding is that new rams can be purchased jointly. Own- ers of two small flocks can go together and buy a better ram than either of them alone would care to pay for. Of the 30 breeds of improved sheep brought to fixed types as adapted to the needs of their native homes, 12 are well established In the United States and others are gaining in popularity. The better-known breeds are grouped into three classes as follows: Medium Wool Breeds. Southdown — Body conformation Ideal for mutton, but from raiser's standpoint not so large as is desirable; weights large in proportion to appar- ent size; will become fat enough for market while growing; better adapted to rolling or hilly pastures; ewes good mothers and good milkers; fleece close and comparatively fine, but often too short to weigh heavily. Shropshire—Hanks high In weight and length of fleece; proceeds of wool important; body Intermediate be- tween Southdown and larger breeds; lambs reach common market weight later than larger breeds. Hampshire—Lambs grow rapidly when well fed ; largest of medium wool breeds; because of size and weight Is not adapted to very rough or scanty pastures; fleeces vary considerably. Oxford—Breed large and heavy and Iambs grow rapidly when well fed; they can be matured early, hut not so early as some of the less growthy breeds; fleece of special Importance, extra length adds to weight us well as making It useful when length of fiber without too great coarseness Is needed. Dorset Horn—Breeding habit strong feature; developed In sections where early lambs were desired; lambs grow and mature rapidly; particularly pop- ular with farmers who raise winter or \hothouse\ lambs. Chevolt — Accustomed to grazing over rough places, active and alert, vigorous uud hardy; capable of pro- ducing mutton upon land unsuited\ to other breeds; fleece fairly dense. Other breeds mentioned in the f me- dium-wool classes are the Suffolk and the, Tunis. Long Wool Breeds. Bred chiefly for mutton, the laxg wools are the largest breeds of sheepi .They have been developed for level lands where feed can be obtained with-, out much travel. Lambs do not mature so rapidly or fatten so young as those of other mutton breeds. Fleeces are loose, coarser and longer as compared with fine wools and medium wools. The long wools are favored by few farmers who raise lambs for market. Cotswold—Big bodied, tall and of stylish appearance. All over the body the wool hangs in long wavy ringlets; fleece as a whole Is bright, and because of having no excess of oil is light in shrinkage and sells well. Lincoln—Wool of great - length, though much coarser than that of the shorter wool breeds; shorter and more compactly built than the Cotswold. Leicester—Wool finer and softer than that of the Cotswold or Lincoln, though not always so thick upon the body. Fine Wool Breeds. Characteristics of the fine wools are the fineness of the wool, ability to travel long distances for feed and wa- ter, and the instinct to herd closely. They are used largely on the range and have strong resistance to internal par- asites and are long lived. They are slow In maturing. The ewes produce few twins and do not rank high as mothers and milkers. American Merino—Merinos are re- corded as being of A, B, or C type. The A type Is extreme in number of wrinkles, as well as fineness of wool; because of wrinkles the A type is not considered desirable for commercial wool raisers. Merinos of the B type are stronger in body than the A's, less heavily wrinkled and grow wool that Is longer but not so fine. The C type is larger and less wrinkled than the oth- er types. Length of wool with as much weight and fineness as possible Is de- manded in this type. Some C type flocks have considerable mutton value and the lambs are fed to be marketed after their first shearing. Ramboulllet—Largest and strongest body of fine-wool sheep; some breed- ers give most attention to fleece, but size Is usually more sought for than in the American Merino. Size growth- iness and strong vitality strongest points from a mutton standpoint Fleece varies in fineness and length, but usually i s quite dense. SUCCESS WITH SITTING HENS Great Care Should Be Taken to Keep Them Comfortable and Free From Lice and Mites. (Prepared by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) In order to secure greatest success and make the hens comfortable when they are sitting, great care should be taken to keep the nests free from mites. To do this effectively is not an easy task. If oil from crude pe- troleum, which i s good for controlling mites, is sprayed freely about the house at that time it may soil the eggs and prevent successful hatching. In- fested quarters, therefore, should be treated thoroughly before hens are set, so as t o start them in nests which are absolutely clean. Beneath the straw of the nest a layer of lime and sulphur will tend to prevent mite breeding, and the entire nest may be dusted occa- sionally with pyrethum. Broken eggs and the straw soiled by them should be removed promptly, as they tend to at- tract mites. Medicated nest eggs, said to control poultry lice, are on the market. These consist largely of naphthalene. While this material will destroy lice when ap- plied generally to the fowl, it is inju- rious to the hen's eggs as well as to the bird. If used in quantity, or if the medicated eggs are allowed to remain for some time beneath a hen, she may die as a result. Sodium fluorid pow- der, dusted on the fowl, or dissolved In water and used as a dip, is the best- remedy for lice. •t.4.rH.4.-H..1.4.4\l\l\l*4'+'H\H\t'i\l\l'-H\i MORE FOOD NEEDED CPrppared by the Unliwl States Iiepartment nt Agriculture l \Notwithstanding the In- Ill crease in production of staple * crops in the United States In 1917, there' Is need for more fond. Taking Into account our own need, the needs of the na- tions associated with us in this war, and the needs of friendly neutral nations, our best efforts will be required to provide enough food in 1918. Whether the war continues or not, the demands on this country be- cause of the Increasing popula- tion and the needs of Europe, will be great. An especially strong demand will be made on this country for meats aud live stock.\ CHARACTERISTICS OF SOWS Bright Expressive Eyes and Active Disposition Are Essential to Good Breeders. (Prepared by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) Bright expressive eyes and an ac- tive disposition are essential in a breeding sow. These will Insure exer- cise, which is necessary. A wild, nervous, mean sow will ofttimes kill her young either through accident or design. On the other hand, a luzy, sluggish sow that will not exercise Is very likely to crush her pigs by ac- cident. N MISERY FOR •. i / ' Mrs. Courtney Tells How She Was Cured by Lydia E. Pmkham's Vegetable Compound* Oskaloosa, Iowa.— 'f For years I wa§ simply in misery from a weakness and awful pains—and nothing: seemed t» do me any good. A' friend advised ma to take Lydia E. Pinkham'a Vege- table Compound. I did so ana got re- lief right away. I can certainly re- commend thi3 valu- able medicine to other women who suffer, for it has done such good work for me and I know it will help others if they will give i t a fair trial/' —Mrs. LIZZIE COUBTNEY, 108 8th Ave., West, Oskaloosa, Iowa, Why will women drag along from day to day, year in and year out, suffering 1 such misery as did Mrs. Courtney, when such letters as this are continually being published.' Every woman who suffers from displacements, irregularities, in- flammation, ulceration, backache, ner- vousness, or who is passing through the Change of Life should give this famous root and herb remedy, Lydia E. Pink- ham's Vegetable Compound, a trial. For special advice write Lydia E. Pinkhara Medicine Co., Lynn, Mass.\The result of its long experience is a t your service. Soap Savers. More use should be made of rain water when procurable and hard wa- ter may be softened by boiling it and then leaving it exposed to the air out of doors for a while. The effect of these precautions will be good for the skin and thrifty in soap usage. By the simple practice of drying soap before using it a large saving will be effected. The bars or tablets may be placed in an airing cupboard for a few days, or anywhere in mod- erate heat, piled not one bar on an- other, but with space between. FRECKLES Now Is the Tint* to Get Rid of These Ugly Spot! There's tio longer the slightest need ot feeling: ashamed of your freckles, as the pre* scrlption othine—double strength—la guar- anteed to remove these homely spots. Simply get an ounce of othine—doubts strength—from your druggist, and apply * little of it night and morning a»d you should! soon see that even the worst freckles have* begun to disappear, while the lighter one* have vanished entirely. Xt is seldom that more than one ounce is needed to completely clear the skin and gain a beautiful clear complexion. Be sure to ask tor the iouble strength oth- ine. as this is sold under guarantee of money back if it fails to remove freckles.—Adv. Chance for Promotion. A first lieutenant in the depot troops has many negroes in his company. They have an idea that a sergeant is a high officer. One negro said to the lieutenant one day: \Sergeant you sho is good.\ The officer responded, \I am not a sergeant.\ \I know T , boss, but some day you. will he.\ Pimply Rashy Skins Quickly soothed and healed by Cutl- cura often when all else falls. The Soap to cleanse and purify, the Oint- ment to soothe and heal. For free samples address, \Cuticura Dept. X, Boston.\ At druggists and by mall. Soap 25, Ointment 25 and 50.—Adv. More Children in Court. The annual report of the children's court of New York city shows that 14,519 children came before the court last year, an increase of 2,094 over the previous year. All the Amount. \Well Hardupp, did you raise any« thing on your promise to pay?\ \Sure; I raised a smile.\ THE GREAT WAR HAS MADE CIGARETTES A NECESSITY. \Our boys must have their smokes. Send them cigarettes!\ This is a familiar appeal now to all of us. Among those most in demand Is the now famous \toasted\ ciga- rette—Lf^KX STRIKE. Thou- sands of this favorite brand have been shipped to France. There is something homelike and friend- ly to the hoys in the sight of the. familiar green packages with the red circle. This homelike, appetizing qual- ity of the LUCKY STRIKE ciga- rette is largely due to the fact that the Burley tobacco used In making it has beeu toasted. \It's toasted\ was the \slogan\ that made u great success of LUCKY •STRIKE in less than a year. Now the American Tobacco Co. Is mak- ing 15 million LUCKY STRIKB Cigarettes a day. A good part of this immense production is making its way across the water to cheer our boys.—Adv. Modern. \Even if you cannot reach the ban- quet room until ten o'clock,\ says the chairman of the committee to the emi- nent after-dinner orator, \I can ussure you that the audience will be waiting, for vx will have two good speakers to deliver addresses to them until you arrive.\ • \Ah '.\ murmurs the after-dinner speaker, with his legendary quickness, \a barrage fire.\—Judge. An Impossibility. \Here's u woman wants to be di- vorced because her husband Is too per« feet.\ \Well do you suppose any woman could be happy with a husband who never gave her a chance to find fault V\ Naturally. \Can you tell me on wha*t llnet brains of thought run?\ \Certain' f J on head lines.\ When Your Eyes NeedlCartf „ Try Murine Eye Remedy VLVKXtim E«t KKMEDY CO.™'lUCASO

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