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The Madrid herald. (Madrid, N.Y.) 1904-1918, April 11, 1918, Image 6

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THE MADRID HERALD. FIRST YEAR OF WA Achievements of United States Recounted in Official State- ments. GREAT ARMY IN TRAINING Land Forces Now Aggregate 123,801 Officers and 1,528,924 Enlisted Men—Navy Personnel Is Tripled. The United States is now entering upon its second year of war. Ou the first anniversary of the beginning of hostilities between this country and Germany, the people are interested in knowing what has been done by the United States in waging and prepar- ing to wage war upon the forces of Prussian autocracj. The committee on public information of the United States government, in a re\tey\ of the lirst ,\car of the war. gives a resume of the activities of the \urious de- partments of the government as they are concerned with prosecution of the war. The committee announces that all statements made are authorized by the war department, the navy de- partment, the United States shipping board and the treasury department. The outstanding feature of the first year of war, it is pointed out In the review, has been the transfor- mation of the standing army and Na- tional Guard, composed of 9..\>1!4 offi- cers and 202.510 men into a fighting force that now aggregates 123,801 of- ficers and 1.52S.924 enlisted men. A statement of the adjutant general shows that the regular army which in April, 1917. comprised 5,791 officers and 121.797 men, now is made up of 10.69S officers and 5D3.U2 men. The National Guard in April, 1917, includ- ed 3,733 officers and 70,713 men, while now it comprises 1G..S93 officers and 431.5S3 men. The reserve corps in service one year ago included 4.000 ' men. Now It includes 9(3.210 officers and 77,360 men. The National army, ' which did not exist one year ago, now includes 516.S39 men. i A substantial vanguard (military : expediency prohibiting publication of > 'actual numbers) of this army is meet- ; ing the enemy in France today or is en- camped there awaiting the call to the trenches; in 16 cantonments and 16 camps and on numerous aviation fields and in a variety of other schools in all parts of the United States the men of the remaining army are hardening and training for their part in the great contest overseas. Behind the activities of this vast force lies a great industry organised to produce an adequate supply of mu- nitions, equipment, and provisions, and to provide transportation TO the firing line, almost every branch of essential industry of the country hav- ing been drawn upon to produce these material requirements. Expeditionary Forces. I Military necessity particularly for- i bids a detailed review of the activities of the American expeditionary forces. General Pershing and his staff ar- rived in Paris on .Tune 14. 1917. 69 days after the declaration of war. The first American troops arrived in France on June 26. On July 4. in eel- , ebration of our natal day and a new- fight for liberty, American troops pa- raded the streets of Paris and were ' greeted as the forerunners of great American armies and vast quantities [ of supplies and ammunitions. ! On October 10, 1917, JS7 days after the war was declared, American sol- , diers went on the firing line. In Jan- I nary American soldiers took over per- manently a part of the line as an American sector, and this line is grad- . ually lengthening. Behind the fighting line in France the American forces have scientifically prepared a groundwork of camps, com- munications, supply bases, and works in anticipation of operations by the full force of the army. They are building and have built railroads, hos. pitals, ordnance bases, and docks in France. They have constructed im- mense barracks, erected sawmills, re- claimed agricultural lands, and car- ried forward many incidental enter- prises. The construction of an ordnance base in France, costing $25,000,000. is now well under way. Great quantities of material used in the foreign con- struction work have been shipped from the United States—from fabricated ironwork for an ordnance shop to nails and rrossties for railroads, and even the piles to build docks. ; All the while there has been a fairly i even flow of men and materials from the United States to France. Thp men in the trenches, back of the lines, on the construction projects, and in the hospitals have been steadily supplied. Our losses at sea, in men and mate- rials, ha-ve been gratifyingly small. The greatest single loss occurred on February 5, when the British ship Tustiiula was torpedoed and sunk. The bodies of 144 soldiers, en route to France, have been found and 55 others were still missing ou March 10. To secure an adequate number of competent officers to lend the new arniips various plans were devised. Two classes at West Point were grad- uated in advance of the usual gradu- ating dates and special examinations were held in various parts of the coun- try for appointments from civil life. Three series of officers' training camps have been held. Of 63,203 candidates In the first two series of camps 44,57>! qualified and were awarded commis- sions. In the third series of camps, opened January 5, 191S, about '1S.O0O candidates, consisting largely of en- listed men. have been In attendance. Corps of Engineers. At the beginning of the war the en- gineer troops consisted of three regi- ments of pioneer engineers, with trains, one mounted company, one en- gineer detachment at West Point. The aggregate strength was approximate- ly 4.125 officers and enlisted men. At prpsent the aggregate authorized strength is over 200,000, with an act- ual strength of approximately 120.000. Of the special engineer units re- cruited for service on railways and in the maintenance of lines of communi- cation, many are already in France and others are awaiting recruitment to full strength in order to be ready for overseas service. The first en- gineer troops, 1.100 strong, to be sent abroad, armed In France about three months after war was declared. Since that time the number has been greatly- augmented. These troops have been constantly engaged in general en- gineering work, including the con- struction of railways, docks, wharves, | cantonments, and hospitals for the use of the American expeditionary forces. They have, in some instances, in the performance of their duties, engaged in active combat with the enemy. Ordnance Department. Since the outbreak of war the commissioned personnel of the ord- nance department has expanded from 97 officers, operating with yearly ap- propriations of about $14,000,000 and with manufacture largely confined to government arsenals, to 5,000 officers in this country and abroad, transacting an unprecedented war program for the supply of ordnance, the total direct appropriations and contra of authoriza- tions for one year having bppn ?4.- 7.\ 6.503.1 S5. While building the foundation for greater production, the ordnance de- partment has provided 1.400.000 rifles; has brought the rate of rifle production up to 45.000 per week, sufficient to equip three army divisions; secured deliveries on more than 17.000 ma- j chine guns; brought the rate of pro- j duction of machine guns from 20.000 to 225,000 per year: increased the rate • of production of S^-inch to 9-inch cali- j ber guns from 1.500 to 15.000 per year; j and has arranged for the manufacture of some 35.000 motortrucks and trae- I tors for hauling heavy guns and am- munition, which are being delivered almost as fast as they can be shipped. ; One billion rounds of ammunition has bfen purchased for the training of troops in the cantonments alone. An idea of the extent of the ord- nance program may be gained from the following few items of purchase: Twenty-three million hand grenades, 725.IHIO automatic pisi,,ls, 250.000. re- volvers. 23.001 I/HHI projectiles for all caliber*- of heavy artillery. 427.24t3.000 pounds of explosives. 2-iO.nOO machine gun--, and 2.4S4(«'»0 rifles. Quartermaster Corps. The magnitude of the work of the quartermaster corps is ind.rated by the operation of the subsistence divi- sion, which is charged with the re- sponsibility of seeing that food sup- plies for the army are available at all stations from the Philippines to Lor- raine. Purchases recently made in- cluded 40 00(1,000 pounds dried beans. 116.000,000 cans baked beans of the 1917 crop. 65.1S4.475 cans of tomatoes. 91.000.000 cans of condensed milk, and 20,287.000 pounds of prunes. The establishment of the subsistence division centralized the purchases of foodstuffs for The army, previous to which such products were distributed through the depot quartermaster. Ef- fective January 1. the central control system has resulted in greater effi- ciency and a hig saving. In January for instance, $100,000 was saved undpr this system as compared with thp prices obtained by depot quartermas- ters, and in February a saving of S3S.740 was made on potatoes alone. The central control system Is still be- ing perfected. Production of 10 000 new automobile trucks is In rjrogress for the army, in addition to purchases of 3.520 passpn- ger cars. 6.126 motorcycles, and 5.040 bicycles, with appropriate repair and replacement equipment. In three months the cantonment di- vision of the quartermaster general's department built 16 cantonments, each one practically a small city, compris- ing about 1.400 separate buildings and providing quarters for 47,000 men. Air Service. The air service has been called upon in the past 12 months to build an enormous structure of the most highly trained personnel and the most Intricate equipment with practically no foundation to start from. Three large appropriations, includ- ing the $040,000,1)00 act passed without a roll call, made a total of $091,000,000 available for the first year. All of this has since been obligated. Last April the nlr service had an almost negligible force of CD officers and 1.120 men, 3 small flying fields, less than 300 second-rate planes, prac- tlcally no nyinrlon Industry, nnd only the most scanty knowledge of the ka- I leidoscopic development abroad. The i first two months of war were required i to secure information, establish a staff, i and work out the program finally adopted. The problem was twofold— j first, personnel; and, second, equip- ment. Todov the personnel Is over 100 times that of a year ago, practically every member a skilled man who has gone through an Intensive course of training. Schools of 11 different kinds have been instituted, courses of instruction laid out, and instruc- tors secured, including foreign ex- perts In a score of lines. Development of Navy, The development of the navy during | the first year of war has given the i greatest satisfaction. Its growth and achievements during this period may be epitomized In the following para- graphs : Strength of the navy today Is nearly 21,000 officers and 330,000 en- listed men ; strength a year ago was 4,792 officers and 77,946 enlisted men. Estimated total expenditures of the navy during first year of war: Dis- bursements and outstanding obliga- tions. $1.881.000.000. Total navol appropriations, real and pending. $3,333,171,665.04. American destroyers arrived at a British port to assist in patrolling Eu- ropean waters 2S days after the decla- ration of war. There are now four times as many vessels in the naval service as a year ago. Nearly 73.000 mechanics and other civilian employees are working at navy- yards and stations. When war was declared, 123 naval vessels were building or authorized, and contracts have been placed since that time for 949 vessels. More than 700 privately owned ves- sels have been purchased or chartered by the navy. Six new- authorized battleships are designed to be of 41.500 tons, the larg- est battleships in the world. Onr 35,000-tnn cruisers, 35 knots, will be the fastest in the world, their spped equaling the fastest destroyers. Prompt repairs of 109 interned Ger- man ships, partially wrecked by their crews, added more than 700.000 tons to our available naval and merchant tonnage. The navy has developed an Ameri- can mine believed to comhine all the good points of various types of mines, and is manufacroring them in quanti- ties. During thp year the latest type of naval 16-inch gun was completed for our npw battleships; It throws a pro- jectile weighing 2.100 pounds. Navy has in Its possession now a stock of supplies sufficient for the average requirements for at least one year. Several hundred submarine chasers, built since the war. have been deliv- ered to toe navy by 31 private con- cerns and six navy yards; many of these boats have crosspd the Atlantic, some in severe weather. Naval training camps have a ca- pacity of 102.000 in summer, 94,000 men in winter. Shipping Board's Progress. Up to date congress has authorized S2.O34.0OO.OO0. of which S1.,13n.OO0,OO0 has bepn appropriated, for the United States Shipping hoard and F.mprgpncy Fleet corporation; on March 1. $353,247,955.37 of this sum had been expended. The Emergency Fleet corporation had requisitioned March 1. 425 steel vessels and contracted for 720 steel vessels, making a total of 1,145 steel ships, of an aggregate dead-wpight tonnage of 8.164.508 tons; it had let contracts for 490 wooden vessels, ag- gregating approximately 1,715,000 dead-weight tons; It had repaired and put In operation 788.000 dead-weight tonnage seized from Germany and Austria. On March S the building program of the Emergency Fleet corporation was being carried on In 151 plants. First Year's War Cost. Total estimated expense of the United States government in the first year of war. without loans to the allies. Is S12.OG7.278.67fi.07 . To hplp mcel this expense, the treas- ury department floated $6,616,532,300 subscriptions to Liberty bonds. Bond*, certificates of Indebtedness, \War Savings certificates, and Thrift stamps Issued by the treasury tip to March 12. totaled $8,560,802,052.96. The United States government had loaned to foreign governments asso- ciated in the war on March 12, 1918, $4,436,329,750. To March 12 the war risk insur- ance bureau had issued policies for a total of $12,465,116,500 to the armed forces. Shell-Cap Cigar Lighter. Capt. John Corrigan of the traffic squad of the police department has re- ceived a souvenir from his son, T. R. Corrigan, who is in France as a mpm- her of base hospital No. 22, and is dis- playing it to his friends. It is a cigar lighter, made from a machine gun one- Inch brass shell cap. After the shell had been fired some enterprising Frenchman made it into a lighter, to be filled with alcohol and a wick, which is lighted by the friction of a steel wheel against a point of steel Silver Coins in Demand. Because of the world-wide advance in the price of silver bullion there has been a pronounced tendency in all countries to withdraw silver coins from circulation. This effect, which is -quite noticeable in certain parts of the United States, Is growing and spreading. Canadian dimes which for- merly were taken only at a discount— and oftep refused—on this side of the international boundary now usually are accepted -as freely as dimes of our own coinage. {Those who have wire. A lid. or \cap for the lighter is rnadp from another piece of brass shell inclosed at one end with a French cop- per coin. It is a novel contrivance and neatly made.—Indianapolis News. No Longer \Made in Germany.\ Clinical thermometers have, In the past, been a feature of Germany's trade; and so. when the German pris- onprs in Francp were s'orted out last year, they were asked if any of them were thermome^pr-makers. and If so would they care'to work at their trade. studied thp situation predict that if the war goes on for some time longer the world will see the greatest short- age of silver coins that has ever ex- isted. A large number stepped out; and now nearly all the thermometers for use 4n France are made by these German prisoners. Their workshop Is one of the old dismantled forts near Paris, and apparently they are most happy in their work. Possibly this is in part due to the fact that they are teaching their art to a number of French women.—Joseph S. Ames, in the Atlantic. Would Save Shipmate or Die. The sailor is always true to his ship- mate. Whether it is in the battle line or a t anchorage away from the guns, If danger threatens, he is ever ready to stand by. One night last January a sailor fell overboard from the dock at the Norfolk yard. He w<wl flown These are days when it is not meet for man to live by wheat alone. into 15 feet of water. John P. Smith, a fireman second class, attached to the United States receiving ship, jumped ovprhoard after him. The man in the water was In a semi-conscious condi- tion yvhen Smith reached him, hut he made his rescue complete. For this gal- lantry he has been commended by Sec- retary Daniels. Smith enlisted in the navy at St. Louis in March, 1914. The latest mother-in-law joke is on the man who married hig to escape the draft, and didn't TEUTON TIDAL WAV Savage Battle Again Is Raging from North of Albert to North of Montdidier. DEFENDERS GIVE SLIGHTLY. French Inflict \Cruel Losses\—Berlin Now Claims Total of 90,000 Pris- oners and 1,300 Guns—French Maintain Their Line. WILLIAM G, MCADOO Sounds Eloquent Keynote of Third Liberty Loan Campaign. London.—Both north and south of the Somuie the German drive for Amiens was checked with heavy loss. The Germans were thrown back when they attacked the British on a 15-mile front between the Sonime and Bucquoy, about halt\ way between Al- bert and Arras. They gained only a tiny triangle of ground just southwest of Albert. South of the Somuie the ons-niy fail- ed to renew his cosily attacks of Thursday. The French gained ground at several points- near MuillyRaine- val, southeast of (irivesnes, north of Orvillers-Sorcl and ai Remind Hill. As a resuli of the lighting the Brit- ish have retired to just east of Villers- Bretonneux, between the Sonime and the Luce, giving up a sjnall .salient on the south bank of the Somme. The French appear to have withdrawn from the angle of the Luce and the Avre. They have established (heir new line just west of Castol. Here the enemy is less than three miles from the Amiens-dei-mont-Paris railroad and eight and a half miles from Ami ens. A French official statement says \cruel losses\ were inflicted on the storming Germans south of the Sonime. Fifteen divisions (180.000 men) were identified. They were thrown forward recklessly. On the other hand, Berlin announces that the allies resisted \desperately\ and their losses were \unusually severe,\ sever- al thousand being taken prisoner. The prisoners taken so far in the of- fensive, the enemy stales, number 90,- 000 and the guns more than 1,300. The first anniversary of America's declaration of war found Pershing's veterans either nctually in the great battle or in reserve not far from the firing line. Just what units are there or how they will lie used cannot be said, but their hour of trial cannot be far off. General Foch, the new commander in chief, in welcoming war correspond- ents said that he hoped they would continue to work for the interests of the common cause of the allies as they hirhertn had done. Pointing to a map. General Foch said : \All is going well. Look at the small advances niadp by the hoc-he—to call them by Their real name—during the 271 h. 28th, 20th and 30th. \It is now the 4th of April, and it is clearly evident that the great tidal wave of the German army lias 'ieen broken on the shore, evidently because it mpt an obstacle. Now they are against an embankment and complete- ly sfopppd. \The future will show Hie full meas- ure of our success. We are going to try TO do better and to get The upper hand of the borhe. I cannot say- what will happen, but all is going well.\ General Foch then wished The cor- respondents success in their work. He «poke with cool confidence. Every ac- tion, every glance, portrayed a strong man. fully alive to his task and pre- pared to deal with if. \Thp least duty we can perform is to lend our money, every available dol- lar we have or can save, to our gov- ernment in order that our gallant sons may be supplied with all they need to save America,\ said Secretary Mc- Adoo. iMEArnjilrno^ Payment of 41/4 Per Cent. Will Be Semi-Annual. Payment Dates Will Come in June, When Drain for Income Tax Pur- poses Will Set In. Hun Gun 75 Feet Long. Amsterdam.—According to Les Xoti- VPlles of Maastricht, another long range gun similar to those already bombarding Paris passed through Bel- gium from Essen on Monday. The length of the barrel is from 20 to 25 meters (about <->i'i to 75 feet) and the caliber from 20 to 25 centimeters (from about 7 to 10 inches). WORLD'S NEWS IN CONDENSED FORM HOUSTON, Tex.—Privates John B. Mann and Walter Matthews (colored) wi-rf execmed at Camp Logan for the murder of Private Ralph M. Foley, Company G, one Hundred and Thir- tieth Infantry. The killing occurred l-Vhrilary 13 uhi-i/ the negroes osesiped from tin- stiic],»ge where Foley was on guard. SPOKANE, Wash.—Spokane police raided the headquarters of tin- Lum- ber Workers' „i„i Agricultural Work- er*' Unions ol the Industrial Workers of tin- World here, took 50 men to pi,. lice headquarters, and seized all books and literature In the rooms. NEW YORK.—Twenty-one danger- ous Huu spies were sent to the prison camp at Furl Oglethorpe. In the group were I)r. Isaac Straus, Joseph Von Bruck and Maurice Von Seehach, the latter buying been caught uctlng as an Interpreter for General Pershing. AMSTERDAM.—On* account of the decreased bread ration many women raided bakers' shops in all parts of the city. Mounted police went called and dispersed the crowds-. WASHINGTON.—The government's weather and crop bulletin announced that the winter wheut Increased great- ly because of fine weather In March. WASHINGTON.—Government oper- ation of the packing industry for the period of the war was demanded In a resolution introduced in the senate Liy Senator Thompson of Kansas. WASHINGTON. — Recommendation that Congress enact a law requiring that all elementary subjects be taught In English in ail the schools of the United Slates was made at the Ameri- canization meeting called by Secretary of the Inferior Lane. WASHINGTON.—Hog Island ship- yard ran 00,000 tons behind Its sched- ule in March. This testimony yvas ijlverj Senate Commerce Committee. Washington.—The legislative foun- dation for the Third Liberty Loan was laid when Congress completed and President Wilson signed the bill au- thorizing issuai.ee of additional bonds al 4 x ,i per cent. Within an hour after President Wil- son signed the bill the first completed bond came from the press of the Bu- reau of Engraving and Printing. It was a $d0 \baby bond.\ Hereafter they will be turned out at the rale of 500,000 a day. The treasury announced that they would mature in ten years, that the loan campaign will continue four weeks, until -May 4, and that after the initial payment of 5 per cent, on sub- ' scription installments of 20, 35 and -10 ; per cent, would be due respectively on i May 28, July is and Aug. 15. The j amount is S3,oo0,000,000 and oversuh- I scriptions, and the only remaining de- I tails to be determined by the treasury are the arraiigeniems -..or conversion of bonds nf Hie First and Second Loans into Third Liberty Bonds. The treasury also explained that the Liberty Loan bill provides for the pur- chase of one-twentieth of the total is- sue of the third loan this year and that this provision also applies to bonds of the second loan and convert- ed bonds of the first loan. The announcement that (he next war loan would mature ten years from the date of issue, whereas the 3% per cent, loan of 1017 yvas to run 30 years and the 4 per cent, loan 27 years, did not cause great surprise in Wall street. While the terms of the loan were Tinder discussion and before their offi- cial announcement the government had been urged by many bankers to place a shorter term to It. In some banking quarters it had even been ad- vocated that the loan be made to run only five years. The payment dates have been ar- ranged so none will come in June when the drain on the country's finan- cial resources will be great on account of income and excess profits taxes due June 15. In the second loan IS per cent, was due two weeks after the campaign dosed, 4(1 per cent, a month later and 40 per cent, one month after that. IN PARTNERSHIP WITH UNCLE SAM Buying Liberty Bonds Aids Our War, Our Army, Our Boys. HOW WORKMEN DO THEIR BIT j ANTI-SNEEZE CAMPAIGN ON. Surgeon General Gorgas Would Pro- ', tect Soldiers and Public. I Washington.—A publicity campaign to protect the soldiers and the public i against spread of respiratory diseases I caused by promiscuous coughing, sneezing and spirting was announced ; by Surgeon General Gorgas. | A series of slogans urging the peo- ple |o use handkerchiefs during the | processes of roughing, sneezing and | spitting will be published in newspa- pers. BRITAIN SETS SHIP RECORD. Yards Turn Out 161,674 Tons In Month of March. London.—The admiralty figures of tonnage of merchant vessels completed and entered into service in the month ended Sunday constituted a record. The total is 101.074 tons, the largest in the last 12 months. While this Is en- couraging in respect to the future out- put, it should not tie overlooked that the effect of any slackening of labor in the shipynrds is not shown until months afterward. ALL SHIPS FOR TROOPS. Food Supplies to Be Restricted to the Absolute Minimum. Washington.—Every available bit of steam tonnage afloat on both the At- lantic and the Pacific is to be forth- with employed for the transport of troops to France. Exports are to be cut to the bone, food supplies are to be restricted to the absolute minimum, and passenger traffic is to be elimi- nated except where it can bo shown that the ease is one of imperative urgency. Investment Brings Good Returns, In Addition to Giving Financial As- sistance Every Loyal Citizen Owes His Government. (By EVA DEAN of the Vigilantes.) It was just another day in the fac- tory. There was nothing prophetic In the hum of the machines; it was quite the everyday hum. The workmen talked loudly to be heard; they always talked while they worked; they liked the sound of their own voices. It mat- tered not much what they said—the same joke will do day after day in a factory: an old one is almost as good as a new one to break the mental monotony. When one's habitual activ- ity is with one's fingers one isn't very critical of mental efforts. Still, were you to ask them, any of the men would have said they pre- ferred an argument to all other kinds of brain exercise. Argument is what they would have called any of the ver- bal volleys they fired back and forth at one another from their inexpert nipiirul batteries, while their expert fingers moved ceaselessly at their tasks. And nowadays there is always enough to argue about—the war! The only trouble—though no one really seemed to mind that—was that there was no one around to uphold the gov- ernment in those controversies. Of the hundred men employed-—for it was a small factory—there was but one with an American-born parent, tbough a considerable number were themselves born in America. The one hundred were all here by choice, how- ever, and hardly one ever really ex- pected to live anywhere else. But they talked as though they might; and one could imagine they expected the Unit- ed Stales to immediately offer them inducements to slay when it heard of their intended leaving. They Discuss Liberty Bonds. Charles, in the lightest corner—a few years ago he yvould have been Karl—was always talking about the price of food: \I take a Liberty bond? Indeed I'll not 1 If the government had kept prices down, and protected the working man, and kept the rich man from making war profits, why, I might. There is going to be trouble in this country some day and the gov- ernment deserves all that is coming to them. The government ought to do everything it can to keep the good will of the people. Why—beer—\ Charles can never talk long without mention- ing beer. Jo—whose early training yvas in a protectorate—was a born financier. He had actually been talking about a bond on the dollar-a-week plan, but no one in the workrooms seemed to think it a good investment. It yvould be bet- ter ro buy sugar or whisky and keep it for a higher price. So Jo had simply talked for the past two weeks; he had not decided. One might get 4% per cent, or even 5 per cent later! It would be better t o wait. \The government don't feed the boys in camp!\ shouted the porter. \of course it don't,\ yelled the thin man by the window. \We don't knoyv what goes on there. No wonder lots of them commit suicide!\ \Well—I'd like to buy a bond,\ broke in old Bailey, courageously. Old Bai- ley was born among the Pennsylvania Dutch. \But. with sixteen dollars a week, and a family, I don't see how I can.\ \Nor do I,\ said the tall young man of whom the men said, \His mother was born here.\ All Are Buying Bonds. The machines hummed on, the voices rising and falling in opposition, when suddenly the eager face of Jo—the news gatherer—was thrust through the door: \There's an Italian banker in the second room talking to the wops about Liberty bonds.\ he informed. The voices ceased. Everybody wished lie could hear. \He's still talking: All the wops are In there.\ rpread the news to every corner of the building; and then close upon that: \They're buying them; every one of the wops are buying th em!\ In a shorter time than If could have taken a man to walk through Hie build- ing, every one In it knew that the wops--the lowest-paid men of them all—were buying Liberty bonds. Presently all the workmen who conld understand English yvere assembled in one room. They looked about cu- riously at one another; never before had they seen themselves en masse. It was a strange assembly, with Its dirty aprons, its rough, lined faces and quiet tongues. It must have seemed such to the salesman; his mouth set per- ceptibly as he looked about at his au- dience. The Italian orator had gesticulated grandly; and there had been much of \Italia! Italia!\ But this man, after his first look at the faces before him, decided not to talk patriotism. So he simply stated that our government yvas at war. Very clearly he ex-plained what that meant financially; he ac- knowledged that living yvas high and hard, but nevertheless everyone who did not help was a slacker, And, in convincing conclusion: \If we don't give our money, the government is go- Russian Farmers and Liberty Bonds. Germany has taken possession of several hundred thousand square miles of fertile Russian and Roumanian ter- ritory, has confiscated what grains were on the land and has set the farm- ers to work raising more grain to he used bv German armies. Probably, but not certainly, enough grain will be left to keep the conquered Russian and Roumanian farmers from starving to death while they raise crops for their German masters. Over in Russia the deluded people Ing to take It anyhow. It has to have It. It will make us pay it in taxes; and then we not only yvill not have any interest, but yve'll have nothing to show for ,.he money. In the second room they all helped. Hoyv many of you are going to help? Hoyv many here yvant bonds?\ Partnership With Government. Evidently the factory considered It a \good argument.\ And then the yvops, yvith their despised salaries, had subscribed; everyone yvas thinking about that. The hands began to go up, and a line of applicants was quickly formed. The tall young man (whose mother yvas an American) had stood, hesitat- ing, until he saw Old Bailey's gray head bend over the signature bench; nnd then, smiling, he slipped iu be- hind him, muttering, \If he cau, I can.\ Noyv the machines yvere humming again and argument began once more. The thin man by the window was the first to speak. \Well he com- mented, \we've got to do something for the boys 1\ \When I get this paid, maybe they'll have a 5 per cent bond,\ said Jo, the financier. \America and Italy; we gotta make kill alia de kings—alia no good 1\ nod- ded one of the contributors from the second room, with approval. It yvas the same everyday hum of the machines, but the factory yvas dif- ferent. It was no 1 onset a critical, skeptical spectator of the struggle of civilization, bitterly suspicious o£ its oyvu government. It aud the govern- ment yvere now partners. The war no no longer the government's war; it yvas our yvar, our army, our boys, and the factory yvas doing its bit! The bond salesman, perhaps, added up the result of his work yvith some satisfaction; but by far the greater and most important part of it he knoyvs nothing about. WOMEN TO THE FORE Wives and Mothers Know Value of Liberty Bonds. War Behind the Lines Is Being.Prose- cuted on a Tremendous Scale— Every Woman Can Help Do Something. (By ALBERT W. ATWOOD, Financial. Writer for the Saturday Evening Post.) The day seems to have passed yvhen. woman's education consisted of piano lessons and a little polite French. Noyv she studies biology, phychology, and all the other ologies. In this great and radical change in the posi- tion of woman it will not do to over- look the change in her relation to- money matters. It is no longer un- yvomanly to knoyv something about money. Feminine charm is not di- minished by knoyving the difference between a bond and a share of stock. Millions of women earn their living today. Hundreds of thousands have independent means and must decide for themselves in affairs financial. More and more of the wives, mothers^ and sisters not only spend the house- hold money, but are consulted by the men yvhen nn investment is to be made. It matters not whether the investment consists of a vlctrola, an automobile, or a bond. It is said men do not take their wives into their con- fidence yvhen they gamble or take a. flyer, hut it is also said that deception In these matters does not pay. So (here is every material reason why women should do their part and more in floating the Liberty bonds. Indeed a woman recognizes a gold dollar just as quick as a man, and when It pays good interest in addition she is not going to turn it down. But there is more than a purely busi- ness and selfish side to the women of this country. They have surprised even themselves with their executive ahility and poyvers of business organ- ization. The Red Cross and every other variety of relief work has been in its detail largely the result of woman's effort. Behind the lines women are prose- cuting the yvar on a tremendous scale. There are millions of men as yvell as women who cannot fight in the trenches, who cannot even drive mo- tortrucks or work In munition fac- tories. There are some people who can- not even successfully raise a -vegetable garden, but there is not an adult man or woman outside the poorhouse and the hospital who cannot either buy or help to sell a Liberty bond. It Is the least they can do. Don't Buy Too Big a Bond. Here is a word of advice for the farmer bond purchaser. Don't bite off more than you can chew. Your gov- ernment doesn't want you to \strap\ yourself or run into financial difficul- ties trying to pay for a bond. Buy one small enough so you will be able to pay for It In the allotted time without having to borrow money to meet the obligation. Its value will represent your savings for that period of time. If your circumstances won't permit of you purchasing a $1,000 bond, buy on- ly a S500 one. Don't complicate our already complicated financial problem by assuming a debt you can't pay. He Wants to Win This War. Do You? A father in a little Illinois town re- ceived a cablegram the other day from General Pershing, announcing the death of his two sons fiver there, \kill- ed in action.\ He went out and sold his home and bought Liberty Bonds. \I'm the only one left now and I'll rent a room for myself,\ yvas his only comment. thought an honorable peace could be negotiated with Germany, but they knoyv differently now as they toll in the fields for the kaiser's soldiers. The only way to negotiate a peace yvith the kaiser Is with a bayonet. We have sent our young men over to France to do the negotiating. Let us furnish them with the bayonets, food and cloth- ing while they are using those bayo- nets. Buy Liberty Bonds. There'sjlfe alone In duty done, and rest alone in striving.—Whlttier.

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