THE MADRID HERALD, Helping the Meat and Milk Supply (Special Information Service, United States Department of Agriculture.) ENCOURAGE USE OF FISH. A Suburban Pool Capable of Putting Fish on the Table Many Times Oftener Than Usual. EAT FRESH FISH AND SAVEMEATS Sport of Fishing May Be Made to Serve Nation's Food Needs and Give Exercise. MUCH GRAIN IS CONSERVED Seas, Lakes, Rivers and Ponds Offer Practically Unlimited Quantities of Fish Living on Food of No Use to Man. Every pound of beef, veal, mutton or pork that goes on the table repre- sents a consumption of many pounds of corn or other valuable grain fed to the cattle, sheep or hogs from -winch the meat was taken. The more of these red meats you eat the more cereals you are taking out of the sup- ply that is so greatly needed for the nation's war needs at this time. To i large extent, too, these statements apply to all kinds of poultry. The one kind of meat, the production of -which does not Tequire the consumption of other human foods, is fish. The seas, lakes, rivers and ponds of this coun- try offer practically unlimited quanti- ties of fish that live on food -which is of no use to man. \When you eat fish you save meat and save grain, both of which your government asks you to conserve. Ordinarily it is possible to secure good, fresh fish at the meat market, but whether justly or not, fresh fish is always more or less under suspicion in the meat markets of cities and towns that are distant from the sea coast or the lakes. The suspicion in most cases is not justified, but even If it were it would not follow, that peo- ple of inland towns and cities must necessarily refrain from eating fresh fish. Fish for Family Use. There are a large number of streams and ponds from which one may take Che fish needed for family consump- tion, and there should be very many more such ponds. A fish pond does not necessarily take up much space and need not be confined to large places. Practically all country fami- lies, and very many suburban fami- lies, could have, without any great difficulty, a fish pond or pool In which enough fish could be grown at mini- mum expense to supply the table and to save large quantities of other meats and cereals. There is a great deal of pleasure and recreation, too, in catching the flMh. And there is a decided satisfac- tion i n knowing that the fish you eat have been taken from your own pond or stream within a very short time before being prepared for the table. The 'United States department of ag- riculture has long urged a more gen- eral adoption of the family fish pond, and It points out the exceptional need foi* such practice at this time. It would be a genuine national service if several 1 lines more people than now indulge in fishing for sport or other- wise would, by devoting a little of their spare time to It, take enough fish from stream or pond to place this excellent food on the table several times oftener than Is now the general practice. Tin- hour or two that every man hli'iuld devote to some form of recrea- tion, If intelligently applied to fishing, would afford the same rest und re- Juvi m<tb>n Hint is to lie had from non- productive sports and would, u. the sumo time, he not only a domestic 1'til » i'Ubllc eeonohiy. Tl>< f« 18 another source of meat supply native to ponds and streams of which much fewer people avail them- selves than of fish. That is frogs. There is no more delicious meat than frog legs. Yet with the exception of a few hotels widely scattered along the lakes and a few of the streams, frog legs are rarely served. Around practically every pond of any consid- erable size there are enough frogs if properly utilized to furnish an occa- sional meal and to furnish a very fine sport in shooting or otherwise taking. More attention to fish and frogs would result in the saving of much food and would be of personal benefit to those who might become interested in it. •&—fr-*-*-&-*-**— U-is—k—&-•£:—£: £ FISH FOR YOUR SECTION. ^ y Probably % every kind of fish y has some peculiarly attractive JX qualities. The following spe- i cies of fish are native to the sec- | tions indicated: y New England—Alewife, cod, Jz cusk, flounder, goosefish, gray- i fish, haddock, hake, halibut, I herring, mackerel, mullet, pol- T lock, salmon, scup, sea trout, A% shad, smelt, squeteague, sword- £ fish, tilefish, whiting. I Middle Atlantic — Alewife, y Jsass, bluefish, butterfish, carp, •£ \catfish cod, flounder, goosefish, ^ halibut, mackerel, perch, rock, J, salmon, shad, smelt, spot, tile- J fish, weakfish, whiting. <f South Atlantic — Alewife, JX bass, bluefish, carp, catfish, i drumfish, mullet, perch, shad, | Spanish mackerel, spot, sque- \? teague. Jf. Pacific Coast — Barracuda, i bass, flounder, grayfish, halibut, I herring, pike, rockfish, sable J f fish, salmon, smelt, trout •? Mississippi Valley — Black jf. bass, bowfin, buffalo, burbot, L carp, catfish, crapple, drum- I fish, pike, red snapper, rock *? bass, sturgeon, sucker, •i Great Lakes—Bass, bowfin, 1 burbot, carp, catfish, drumfish, I lake herring, lake trout, perch, f* pike, sturgeon. •ii Gulf — Barracuda, buffalo, X. carp, catfish, croaker, drumfish, I mullet, Spanish mackerel, sque- J f teague, sturgeon. #-jf— 2}—&—i}—ty-i*.i$—*y- #—#— £}•—i}- More Sheep Needed. That mutton and wool production in this country can be incrt-aspd greatly admits of no doubt. This can be ac- complished by developing sheep hus- bandry on farms, .especially in the Eastern and Southern states. Steps should be taken in the \East and South to do away with the sheep-killing dog menace by state or local action. Large results can be secured by improving methods of breeding and management on the range; by securing the restock- ing of Improved farm lands with sheep; by the larger use of forage crops and pastures; by encouraging sheep and lamb clubs; by the elimina- tion of parasites; by protection against losses from predtiiory ani- mals; and by having lambs ready for market at from 70 to 80 pounds weight, thereby requiring a minimum of gruin to finish them and making possible the maintenance of 'larger breeding flocks. Feed for Next Winter. Pap-seelng farmers may advantage- ously plan to secure their winter sup- ply of feed la September and October when danger of spoilage is past and avoid the uncertainty of. deliveries during the. winter when the demand for feed usually exceeds the output of the mills. TWJTM U THE ^5 K PLAN TO MAKE GOOD BUTTER The velvet beau may be utilised bj grazing in the field with various klndf of JJv« Block, especially cuttla. Quality Is Improved If Standard Meth. ods and Care Are Practiced by Farmer. (Prepared by the X'nited States Depart- meat o£ Agriculture.) Tin- lmifiv made on the farms of the Tniled States may be materially Improved in quality in most cases, If standard methods are employed and greater care is exercised in carrying out the necessary details. The depart- ment gives the following outline of the essential steps to be taken In mak- ing good farm butter: 1. Produce clean milk and cream. Cool the cream immediately after It comes from the separator. Clean and sterilize all utensils. 2. Ripen or sour the cream at from 65 degrees to 75 degrees F. until mildly sour. Always use a thermometer in order to know that the right tempera- ture is reached. 3. Cool the cream to churning tem- perature or below and hold at that temperature for at least two hours be- fore churning. 4. Use a churning temperature—usu- ally between 52 degrees and 66 de- grees P.—that will require 30 or 40 minutes to obtain butter. 5. Clean and scald the churn, then half fill it with cold water and revolve until churn is thoroughly cooled, after which empty the water. 6. Pour the cream into the churn through a strainer. 7. Add butter color—from 20 to 35 drops to a gallon of cream—except late in the spring and early in the summer. 8. Put the cover on tight; revolve the churn several times; stop with bottom up and remove stopper to per- mit escape of gas; repeat until no more gas forms. 9. Continue churning -until butter granules are formed the size of grains of wheat. 10. Draw off the buttermilk through the hole at the bottom of the churn, using a strainer to catch particles of butter. When the buttermilk has drained out, replace the cork. 11. Prepare twice as much wash wa- ter as there is buttermilk, and at about the same temperature. Use the ther- mometer; do not guess at tempera- tures. Put one-half the water into the churn with the butter. 12. Replace the cover and revolve the churn rapidly a few times, then draw off the water. Eepeat the wash- ing with the remainder of the water. 13. The butter should still be in granular form when the washing is completed. 14. Weigh the butter. 15. Place the butter on the worker and add salt at the rate of three- quarters of an ounce to a pound of butter. 16. Work the butter until the salt Is dissolved and evenly distributed. Do not overwork. 17. Pack in any convenient form for home use or make into one-pound Drawing Off Buttermilk. prints for market, wrapping the butter in white parchment paper and inclos- ing in a paraffined carton. 18. Clean the churn and all butter- making utensils. NEAT PACKAGES FOR BUTTER One-Pound Print Is Most Desirable, as It Presents More Attractive Appearance. (Prepares by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) For home use butter Is frequently packed in glazed earthenware crocks, which are very satisfactory and con- venient receptacles for butter on the farm. If the glazing is imperfect, how- ever, the crock absorbs butter and soon becomes Insanitary. For market tile rectangular one- pound print Is the most desirable form. It presents a more attractive appear- ance than the crock or \country roll,\ Is more convenient and easily handled, and can be Inserted Into a carton which not only protects the butter but also adds ereutly to the appearance of the package. To make prints, the printer Is presKod upon the butter on I lie table until It Is completely 'filled, the ourplus Is then scraped off with the paddle and live print pressed oul iu parchment wrapping pnp'ir. WOODLOT PROVIDES WINDBREAK AND SUPPLY OF FIREWOOD, FENCE POSTS AND LUHHBEF ?! > ?<*& • *•<•&-!%&•\>£'• &».y<^/i-tt „•>+<$ Not Only Is a Well-Managed Farm Timber Stand a Source of Fuel, but It Shelters the Farmstead From the Prevailing Winter Winds. (Prepared by the United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) Trees and shrubs about the home and farmstead not only increase the value of the property but make con- ditions pleasanter and more healthful. A limited amount of planting may be done, therefore, for comfort alone Ir- respective of other return. Where a considerable plantation is contem- plated, however, it is essential to know what material may be grown economically and the uses to which it may be put. On the average farm in the plains region the first effort in planting is to provide a small grove plantation which will protect the buildings from severe winds and furnish shade for greater comfort of both man and ani- mals. Sometimes when such a wind- break has been established the owner tries to make it furnish a supply of material for use on the farm. This. Is a mistake, for if a belt of trees is planted primarily as a protection against the wind the pruning and re- moval of much large material may lessen or even destroy its protective value. Value of Plantation. The value of a plantation, other than a windbreak, on the farm lips in its ability to furnish fuel, posts and a limited amount of lumber and repair material. Within a very few years after planting the plantation will need to be pruned and the prun- ing will furnish considerable fuel, de- pending upon the size of the plot, If good care is given the trees they will develop rapidly and some thinning will have to be done t o prevent harm- ful crowding. The material thus re- moved will contribute materially to the upkeep of the farm by furnishing posts and stakes. When the planta- tion is still older more valuable ma- terial may be harvested. Small tim- bers for building construction, poles for implements, also tool handles, neekyokes, eveners, whiffletrees and, in favorable situations, a limited amount of lumber is provided at home as needed. Throughout the plains region there is a marked scarcity of timber which will produce even a fair grade of lum- ber and this fact should be taken into account when species are select- ed for planting. When a large planta- CABBAGE WORM MOST DESTRUCTIVE ENEMY Spraying Is Effective Remedy in Combating This Pest. Community Action Is Desirable Wher- ever Related Crops Are Grown Extensively—Leave Few Pois- oned Stalks for Traps. (Prom the United States' Department of Agriculture.) The common cabbage worm, the most destructive enemy of cabbage and re- lated crops-in the United States, be- gins its depredations as soon as the young plants are set out in the spring and continues its work throughout the summer. Control measures, to lie ef- fective, should begin as soon as the in- sect makes Its appearance. Although the Insect caused the total destruction of cabbage, cauliflower, and other crops ^u large areas in the years Immediately after lis first ap- pearance in this country in the sixties, control measures have now been per- fected to such a degree and adopted to such an extent that losses need not be great. Spraying with a solu- tion of two pounds of powdered arsen- ate of lead, four pounds of arsenate of lead In the paste form, or one pound of paris green to 50 gallons of water should be begun as soon as the plants are set out and should be repealed as often as examination of the plants shows it to be necessary. The common cabbage \worm\ is the larva of a white butterfly having black- tipped wings. The butterflies appear on warm spring days, and continue about gardens and fields until after several severe fall frosts. In the Gulf region they are present throughout the season. Eggs are laid on cabbage and related plants where they hatch In from four to eight days. The caterpillar Is velvety gree*i, about the color of the cabbage foliage. It eats voraciously und grows rapidly, becoming full grown Iu from ten to fourteen days after hatching. Three generations occur each season In the northeast and probably six in the ex- treme^South. The first generation usu- ally develops on wild plants. Hand picking may be practiced suc- cessfully In amall gardens. Where Sprays ate employed they should be tion is established care should be taken to put out such trees as will give the maximum amount of body material and to arrange them so as to derive the greatest benefit. Secure Best Results. In windbreak planting the best re- sults usually are secured when the shortest trees are placed on the side facing the wind, so that a sloping face is presented and the air currents are deflected upward. These short trees should have low-branching habits and dense foliage, in order that they may offer as much hindrance to the pas- sage of air currents close to the ground as is possible. The Russian olive is probably the best for this. Not infrequently, when complaints are made of the reputed ineffectiveness of windbreaks i t develops upon exami- nation that the planter has either used unsuitable species and given 1hem poor care or has failed to estab- lish belts of sufficient width. Species for Northern Region. The northern half of the plains re- gion, which includes the eastern por- tion of Montana, Wyoming and Colo- rado and the western portions of the Dakotas and Nebraska, is character- ized by lower temperatures, heavier precipitation, and a shorter growing season than the southern half. The species recommended for it are: Hack- berry, honey locust, white elm, cotton- wood, narrow-leaf cottonwood, white poplar, white willow, diamond willow, Russian olive, buffalo berry, Siberian pea tree, Jack pine, western yellow pine. Species for Southern Region. All the species recommended for the northern portion of the plains re- gion may be planted in the southern portion, which includes southeastern Colorado, western Kansas and Okla- homa and northern Texas, and on ac- count of the more moderate tempera- tures it is possible to extend' the list. The following additional species are recommended: Box elder, green ash, black locust, red cedar, Chinese arbor vltae. Specific information on these spe- cies is published In Farmers' Bulletin No. 888, a copy of which can be ob- tained by applying to the United States department of agriculture, Washington, D. C. applied in a fine mist, since coaTser ap- plications tend to gather in drops on the leaves and run off. Community action in combating the cabbage worm is desirable wherever cabbage and related crops are grown extensively. Agreements should be entered by the truckers of the commu- nity for each to spray throughout the season and to carefully clean the fields of the bulk of the old stalks as soon as the c/op Is harvested. A few stalks should be left at regular intervals as traps on which the last generation of female butterflies- will* deposit eggs. Such stalks should be poisoned freely with arsenicals so that the worms of the last generation will not develop. USES FOR DIFFERENT FOWLS Poultry, Other Than Chickens, Hav« Important Place in Increasing Needed Food Supply. (Prepared by the United Slates Depart- ment of AKriciiltun?.) The hen, first and last, is the main dependence for Increasing the supply of white meat and eggs, but she re- quires the aid of turkeys, guineas, geese, and thicks, just us, on a dairy farm, the cow requires the aid of pigs, sheep, and goats. The setting of the standard at 100 hens per farm is safe, but no such arbitrary standard can | he set for tlu> oilier kinds of poultry, j Tile small farm, with grain fields of ] neighboring farms In proximity to the | burn and dooryard. would, perhaps, he | better without turkeys. The farm ! through which no streams run and \ which has no large pond would per- j imps he belter without ducks. But , tile circumscribed farm on which tur- keys would be a disadvantage may be well supplied with streams and ponds ' so that ducks would be unusually profitable, and the farm that lias no i streams and ponds may have large range for turkeys. Each farm family will have to determine for itself what poultry can be profitably kept in ad- dition to 100 hens, bearing in mind always that an adequate number should be kept of all the kinds for which free range can be found. Turkeys,' ranging farther afield, prey upon insect forms that escape the hens. From the time the young are old enough to begin foraging for themselves, perhaps early in June, un- til near frost, turkeys take the bulk of their food from field insects, de- vouring millions of grasshoppers and other injurious forms in meadow and pasture. In regions where wooded areas are still fairly extensive, mast is an important item in the diet of the turkey. When the insect stores be- gin to fail, the mast larders are be- ginning to be filled. Feeding on acorns, chestnuts, beech nuts, and the like, turkeys will go a long way toward fattening themselves for the Thanks- giving or Christmas market and will not require much feeding of corn or other grain to finish them. Generally speaking, turkeys will require a larger feeding of grain than chickens to fit them for market, but, as they utilize forms of waste that hens and their broods would not reach, the keeping of a fair number of turkeys is good economy. Guinea fowls utilize still other Kinds of waste that would escape both hens and turkeys. Taking a wider range than chickens and yet not quite so wide as turkeys, keeping largely to thickets and weed patches, and com- mitting fewer depredations against field and garden than either chickens or turkeys, requiring little feeding at any time, being prolific layers, during their season of eggs that are thought by many to have a richer and finer flavor even than hen eggs, the guinea fowl is an economic necessity on any farm where a serious effort Is made to convert all waste into meat and eggs. The one kind of poultry of question- able economic status on farms is the pigeon. Almost exclusively a grain eater, the pigeon renders no notable sendee as a conserver of waste, ex- cept it might be shattered grain in the fields, and that in large measure would be taken up by other poultry and by pigs. WAR DEVELOPING OUR ROADS INCREASE SUPPLY OF CHICKENS AND EGGS (Prepared by the United States De- partment of Agriculture.; Every commercial breeder, ev- ery farmer, every back-yard poultry raiser, Is urged to keep these alms steadily in view: 1. Keep better poultry. Stand- ard-bred poultry improves the quality and increases production. 2. Select healthy, vigorous breeders to produce strong chicks. 3. Hatch early to produce fall and winter layers. 4. Preserve eggs when cheap for home -use. 0. Produce Infertile eggs, ex- cept for hatching. 0. Cull the flocks to eliminate unprofitable producers. 7. Keep a small back-yard flock to supply the family table. 8. Grow as much poultry feed as possible. 9. Eat more poultry and eggs to conserve the meat supply. Preserve Bogs for Winter. It is the duty of every farmer not only to preserve eggs for his own use, but to urge his friends living In town to preserve eggs for next full and win- ter use. Hens In Confinement. Hens like freedom, but good feed and cure reconcile them to confiue- meut. Mature, rugged birds often lay more eggs in close confinement than when at liberty. MARKING CHICKS MADE EASY Toe Punch Method Enables Poultry- man to Disti-nguish Hens From the Young Pullets. fPrepared by thp United States Depart- ment of Agriculture.) Toe punch or mark all the chickens before they are transferred to the brooder or brood coop, so that their age and breeding can be readily deter- ' A * A * A - A * A « A - A * A A* A A•* A A.\ A A*- A A* A A * A A * A A * A A A A A A A A A Sixteen Different Methods of Marking Chicks—If This Plan Is Followed Age of Fowls Can Easily Be Told. mined after lliey tire matured. Farm- ers frequently keep old liens on their farms and kill the younger liens und pullets, because ihey are unable to distinguish between them after the pullets have matured. DUCKS GATHER THEIR LIVING Fowls Convert Waste and Things of Little Value Into Profit—They Destroy Weeds. I Micks will gather most of their liv- ing eight or nine months of the year ill allowed lo do so. By Ihls meihod Ihey will produce Jots of eggs, und Ibis is ihV profitable way to manage ducks. They should convert waste and tilings of Utile or no value into profit. They are splendid birds for guiherlng up In- sec! s and larvae, both on land und in the water. They destroy obnoxious Weeds, atid arc good gleaners in a fl«M after harvest. Great Destroyers of Insects. Chickens are great destroyers of In. Reels, including many Injurious forms, In yard, pumure. und orchards. They destroy useless grunses and weeds >ilso. One of Most Important Benefits will Be Distribution of Farm Products by Motors. \One of the most important benefits of the war to America is going to be the development of transportation of farm products to markets by means of motor trucks,\ remarked R. C. Watts Of St. Louis, highway engineer, while in Washington the other clay. \If any- one had told us five years ago that mo- tor vehicles would be utilized for mov- ing products and machinery as they have been used in the last twelve months, he would have been thought crazy, yet Charles Schwab, the new head of the fleet corporation, Is giv- ing a practical demonstration of how to do tilings by transferring a large part of his office equipment to Phila- delphia by motor trucks. The high- ways of the country have been taken over by the people for hauling goods which could not be hauled during the period of congestion by the railroads. Iu the whole history of transportation the highway has been the patient drudge, but suddenly the motor truck has come to the front and supplied for the roads what the steam engines sup- ply for th» railways, and thus has brought about many new conditions, which will develop Into many other new and marvelous results. \To my mind, the most important will be the distribution of farm prod- ucts by means of motor vehicles. We know that the farmers have always re- lied upon the railroads for the move- ment of their products long distances. Loading Eggs Into Motor Trucks. For the short haul, of course, they util- ized the wagon and in later years the automobile. But for hauling any great quantity of products they relied en- tirely on the railroads. The employ- ment of the motor truck has demon- strated its practicality, and hereafter when things become normal we shall kee thousands of great motor vehicles hauling farm products to market. It is going t o result, moreover, in a won- derful improvement of the roads all through this country.\ f.ieat Produced Quickly. Meat \u'> lie produced from poultry more (|iii\kh thuu from any other nource. INCREASED VALUE OF FARMS Motorcar Opens Every Acre of Ground and Brings It Nearer Center of Population. The railroad opened up a few roads, but the motorcar opens every acre of ground and brings it nearer the centers of population. The products—the motorcar increased those values still more by marketing them quicker. While the telephone put the farm In communication with the city the motor- car does that and more;—it puts the farmer and his family In physical and mental communication with the mar- kets and the social life of the city. SOLUTION OF ROAD PROBLEM Hard-Surfaced Highway Is Best Wher- ever Traffic Will Warrant Nec- essary Expense. Roads must be built to suit the en- vironment—both physical and finan- cial. Earth roads are the only ones some communities can afford, while other sections may require gravel or broken stone surfaces. But wherever the traffic will warrant the expense, an economically designed and carefully constructed hard-surfaced highway is the only satisfactory solution of the road problem. Plan Comprehensively. To be efficiently done, road and street building must be planned com- prehensively and under the careful dl' rection of one whose knowledge U based on both years of careful thought and practical experience. Highways In Mexico. The government of Mexico has com- mitted itself to the policy of construct- ing at the earliest possible tune a sys- tem of modern highways that shall connect all the principal cities and parts of the country. Daily Water Supply for Cow. The average milk cow requires near- ly ten gallons of water u day, and more thiiis two-thirds of that must come as drink and the balance from wafer In the feed. With such a large consump- tion of water, there's no need to add more to the milk. Separator Hot Complex. The separator is not a very complex machine, yet it offers lodging placet* for the bacteria which contaminate cream and produce fermentation or nourlng and undesirable flavors.