# Binghamton courier. (Binghamton, N.Y.) 1844-1849, October 21, 1846, Image 1

### Image and text provided by New York State Library

m • II fUIUSUED EYKIT WKDNE 8 BAT) A t $2 p e r a n n u m , t u A a y a n c e *$00 50 O rricr at J. R. O rton ' s B ookstore . RATES OF ADVERTISING. On* squire ofie week, * - ' - x P “ three'week*, - - - ** I* year, — . - - Half column 1 year, - - - Whole column 1‘ year, - - - Professional Cards not exceeding 10 lines, r^Lcgalhdyertiseftientg al the rates allow.ed by law. “Equal Protection to all Classes.” — J a m e s K. P olk . VOL. VIII. NO. 31.] B I N G H A M T O N , N . Y ^ W E D N E S D A Y , O C T O B E R 21, 1816. EW IIOLE N O . 787, * * CA P T U R E or M O N T E R E Y . C The following letter from Rice Garland to M r. David Perkins, al Fort Pol If, tells the story briefly and no doubt accurately : 1 Monterey, Sept. 24, 1846. My Dear Sir—— On the 21st, 22d and 23d instant there was hard fighting here, and many poor fellows have suffer- ed bv i t 5 * but I t h i n k it m ay be said with safely that Gen- -Taylor has the town in his power. T h e place was much m u te strongly fortified than Gen Taylor- had *ny idea of, and the Mex­ icans defended iheir works with skill and determ ination. T h i s morning. Col. Morino Adjutant G' neial of the M e x i c a n arm y , came into camp with a pro­ position from Gen. Am- piidia to evactia e the his a r m y into the town; he and out to march interior. This Gen. Taylor declined, arid in si.-led upon A m p u d i a arid hi.- arm ? b e c o m i n g priso­ ners o f war— the men lo be disbanded, with a siip u i i i i o n not to take up a r m s a g a i n s t us d u r i n g the war— the General and hisofhc- rs to r e m a i n iu custody un til dtspo.-ed of by our government. T h e par­ ties have been riego-in- ling all day . Ii they do not agree there uiii be some move fighting ; but the place cannot bold out long. U p to yesterday at 9 A M-, it was 5 killed and 25 wounded. T h e whole loss on our side ’Cannot be much Ies- than 200 met! in killed, wounded and prisoners. 1 have no lime to send you thedelails of the dif­ ferent actions. W e hope to he in fovvii to-morrow. Yours truly. R i c e G a r l a n d . Sept. 2 5 — T h e ene­ my have agreed lo give •wp the town. I am nol positive as to the terms, but if they be as rumor­ ed, we gain but little by the'fi. It is ce-tain T a y ­ lor has receded fiom bis first ground, and grant- ■ ed all the enemy a.-ked. R. G. Al hough we have car tied the place and won the victory, yet it bas cost os dear. T h e •Carnage on our sid- is great, probably more so than that of the Mexi cans. But this we do nol know, a? they fought •under covet all tin* time. Gi-n. Worth has dis linguithid himself as a gallant soldier and a skilful commander — Gen T. gave him a f.iii chance, and he has no­ bly availed himself of it. Ills division, u ith B a y s ’ regiment o(Texarts,have gained more ground,and carried more points,than * 5*11 the rest of ihe army, with very little loss. v * __ Calc in Sew York, THE OF THE S T A T E O F N E W -Y O R K . Y o r k . O c t 14. T h e gale of iast night has done heavy damage ill.various parts of the city. In the vicinity of Cast)e G u idon three, of th e trees that ornament that place, have been torn up by the roots,and there is a ppifect wreck o f broken limbs, strewn about in all quarters.— la b o r e r s are employed ia repairing the bit ale made in the garden wall •over which the sea ac­ tually washed.sweeping a w ay a vast quantity of «arth and stone, and ma k i n g a regular bleach T h e roofs of a whole (block of houses in Ham iltoq street have been blown down. T h e two ateeples.belonging to the Episcopal Church,have been also tumbled down, and fell across the rail road track. A bessuti ful mulberry tree, in the Dark.was torn up-by the roots. Alsp, two-trees in James street. T h e awnings, in everv par' ®f the.city, have all betm tom to atoms.,. G r a n d Bowery, and. Chat­ ham streets present a perfect w reck. A t Jer- w y C ? iy th ree sh i ps have \ been sun Ir. In Rropk - lyn-two*shanties have been blown down] but; r fortunately, no lives. were lost. We the People of the State of New-York, grateful to A l m i g h t y G o d for our F r e e d o m , in o r d e r to se­ cure its blessings, no establish this Constitution. Article I . S e c tio n 1 . N o m e m b e r o f th i s sta t e sb a ll b e d i s ­ fra n c h ise d , o r d e p r iv e d o f a n y o f th e .r ig h ts o r p r i v i ­ leg e s , sec u r e d 1 to an y citizen th e r e o f , u n le s s b y th e la w o f t h e land, o r th e ju d g m e n t o f h i s p e e r s . S e c tio n 2. T h e tria l b y ju r y , in ail c a s e s in w h ic h it h a s been h e r e to f o r e u s e d , sh a ll re m a i n in v io late fo r e v e r. B u t a j u r y t r i a l m a y b e w a i v e d by th e par­ tie s fn all- c iv il cases-, i n th e m a n n e r to be p r e s c r ib e d by law . \ S e c ti o n 3. T h e f r e e e x e r c i s e an d en jo y m e n t o f re® lig io u s p rofessio n an d w o r s h ip , w i t h o u t d i s c r im in a ­ tio n o r p r e f e r e n c e , shall f o r e v e r be allo w e d in th i s sta l e to all m a n k i n d ; an d no person shall b e r e n d e r ­ e d in c o m p e te n t to be a w itn e s s on a c c o u n t o f h is op in io n s on m a t t e r s o f relig io u s b e l i e f ; b u t th e li­ b e r t y o f c o n s c i e n c e h e r e b y se e u r e d - s h a i l n o t be so c o n s tr u e d a s to ex c u s f e a c E s o f li c e n ti o u s n e s s , o r .jus­ tify p r a c t ic e s in c o n s isten t w i t h th e peace o r safety o f th i s state. S e c tio n 4. T h e p rivilege of th e .v v n t of habeas cor­ pus shall n o t be s u s p e n d e d , u n le s s w h e n , in c a s e s o f rebellion o r in v a s io n , th e public safety m 'ay r e q u i r e its su s p e n s io n . S e c tio n [\ E x c e s s iv e b a il shall n o t be re q u i r e d , n o r e x c e s s iv e tin e s im p o s e d , n o r s h a l f c r u e l a n d u n ­ usual p u n ish m e n ts be in f licted , n o r sh a l l w itn e s s e s Be u n r e a s o n a b ly d e tain e d S e c tio n 6. N o person shall be h e ld td a n s w e r for a capital o r o th e r w ise infam o u s c r i m e , / ( e x c e p t , in' cases o f impeachment, andin cases o f militia, when in actu a l s e r v ice ; and the lan d a n d 'r i a v a t- f o r c e s tn tim e o f w a r , o r w h ich th i s sta te m a y k e e p w ith th e co n s e n t o f C o n g r e s s in tim e of p e a c e ; a n d in c a s e s o f petit larcen y , u n d e r t h e re g u l a ti o n o f th e L e g is­ latu r e ,) unless on p r e s e n tm e n t .pr in d i c t m e n t c f a .rrrand ju r y , an d in an y tria l i n a n y c o u r t w h a te v e r , the p a r t y a c c u s e d shall be allo w e d to a p p e a r a n d d e ­ fend in p e r s o n a n d w ith .co u n s e l, a s i n c i v i l actio n s . i \ o perso n ,s h e ll be s u b ject to be tw ice put in je o p a r ­ dy f o r th e sa m e o f f e n c e ; n o r s h a ll h e be com p e lled in an y c r i m i n a l c a s e , to be a w itn e s s ag a in s t h jm - s e l f ; n o r b e d e p r iv e d qf life, lib e r ty o r pro p e r ty w ith ­ o u t du e p ro c e s s o f la w ; n o r s h a ll p r iv a te,p r o p e r ty be tak e n fo r public use w ith o u t j u s t com p e n s a tio n : S e c tio n 7. W h e n p r iv a te p ro p e r ty shall be tak e n for an y public* u s e , t h e c o m p e n s a ti o n to be m a d e th e r e f o r , w h e n su c h c o m p e n s a tio n is no t m a d e by th e sta te, shall b e a s c e r ta i n e d by a ju r y , o r by n o t [yss than th r e e c o m m i s s i o n e r s appointed by a c o u r t o f r e c o r d , as sh a ll be p r e s c r ib e d by law . P r i v a t e ro a d s m a y be opened in th e m a n n e r to be p r e s c r ib e d by law ; but in everv case the necessity of the road, ithd th e am o u n t o f all d a m a g e t o b e su s tain e d by the opening-thereof, sh a l l b e f i r s t d e te r m i n e d by. a\ ju r y o f f r e e h o ld e r s , an d su c h a m o u n t , to g e t h e r w ith- the e x p e n s e s o f the p r o c e e d in g , s h a ll be paid by th e p e r ­ son to be b e n e fited. S e c tio n 8. E v e r y c it iz e n m a y freely sp e a k , w r it e and publish h is se n t im e n ts on all subject.--, b e in g re ­ sponsible., fo r th e abuse of th a t r i g h t ; an d n d law shall be passed to r e s tr a i n o r ab r i d g e th e lib e r t y o f speech o r o f the press. In all c r i m i n a l p r o s e c u tio n s or in d i c tm e n ts for libels, th e t r u th m a y be g iv e n in evidence, to the ju r y ; and if it s h a ll ap p e a r to th ° ju r y t h a t th e m a t te r c h a r g e d as libellous is tru e , a n d w a s published w ith good m o tiv e s an d for ju s tifiab le e n d s , th e narty s h a ll b e a c q u itted ; a n d the\ j u r y sh ill have the rig h t to d e term in e the law a n d th e fact. S e c tio n 9. T h e assen t o f tw o - th ir d s o f th e m e m ­ b e r s elected to each b r a n c h of th e L e g isla tu r e , s h a ll btj r e q u isite to every bill ap p ro p r iating the public m o n e y s o r property for local o r p riv a te purposes. . S e c tio n 10. N o law shall be passed , ab r id g in g the rig h t o f th e people peaceably to assem b le and to pe­ titio n th e g o v e r n m e n t, o r a n y d e p a r t m e n t thereof\ n o r s h a ll a n y d iv o r c e be g r a n t e d , o th e r w ise than b y due j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d in g s , n o r s h a ll an y lo ttery h e r e ­ a f t e r be au th o r ized o r an y sale o f lo ttery tic k e t s al­ low e d w ith i n th is state. w . • S e c tio n Ll. T h e people o f th i s sta te , itr t h e i r r i g h t o f s o v e r e ig n ty , a r e d e e m e d to p o s s e s s th e o r ig in a l an d u ltim a te property in an d to all lan d s w ith in the ju r isd i c ti o n o f th e s t a t e ; an d all l a n d s th e title to w h ic h sh a ll fail, from a d e f e c t o f h e i r s , sh a ll r e v e r t or e s c h e a t to th e people S e c ti o n 12. A ll feudal te n u r e s o f ev e r y d e s c r ip ­ tio n , w ith ail t h e i r in c i d e n ts, a r e d e c la r e d t o b e ab o ­ lish e d , sav in g h o w e v e r , all re n t s a n d se r v ic e s c e r ­ ta i n w h ich a t an y tim e h e r e to f o r e h a v e b e e n law fu l­ ly c r e a te d or r e s e r v e d . S e c tio n 13 A ll l a n d s w ith i n th is-state a r e d e c la ­ red to be allod ial, s o th a t , s u b ject only t o the lia b il i­ ty to esc h e a t, th e e n ti r e an d absolu te property is v e s ­ ted in the o w n e r s acc o r d i n g to the n a t u r e \of t h e i r resp e c tiv e esta te s . S e c tio n 14. N o lea s e o r g r a n t o f a g r i c u lt u r a ll a n d , for a lo n g e r p e r io d th a n tw e lv e y e a r s , h e r e a f te r m d e , in w h ic h shall be re s e r v e d an y r e n t o r s e r ­ v ice of a n y k i n d , shal! be valid. S e c tio n 15. A ll fines, q u a r t e r s a les, o r o t h e r lik e re s tr a i n ts upon alien a tio n reserv e d in any g r a n t o f lan d , h e r e a f te r to be m a d e , shall b e v o id . S e c tion IS. N o purchase o r c o n tr a c t fo r th e sale o f f i n d s in th i s sta te , m a d e sin c e wm fo u r teen th day ■of O c to b e r ope th o u s a n d seven h u n d r e d an d se v e n ­ ty-five ; o r vvhich m a y h e r e a f te r b e m a d e , of, o r w ith th e In d i a n s , shall be v a lid , u n less m a d e u n d e r the a u th o r it y , and , w ith the co n s e n t oi th e L e g isla ­ ture. S e c tio n 17. S u c h p a r ts o f the co m m o n la w , an d o f th e acts o f th e L e g isla tu r e o f the co lo n y o f N evv- Y o r k , as t o g e t h e r d id form th e law o f the sa i d co lo ­ ny , on the n in e t e e n th d a y of\ A p ril, o n e th o u s a n d s e ­ ven h u n d r e d a n d seventy-five, a n d th e r e s o lu ti o n s o f the C o n g r e s s o f th e s a id colony, a n d cf th e C o n v e n ­ tio n o f th e State o f N e w - Y o r k , in f o r c e on the t w e n ­ tieth d a y o f A p ril, one th o u s a n d sev e n h u n d r e d and sev e m y - s e v e n , w h ic h have n o t sin c e ex p ire d , o r been repealed o r altered ; and su c h a c t s o f th e L e ­ g isla t u r e o f th i s sta t e as are n o w in f o r c e , sh a ll be a n d co n tin u e t h e law o f th i s s t a t e , su b jec t to su c h a lt e r a t io n s as tb e L e g isla tu r e s h a l f m a k e c o n e e r n - in g t h e sam e . B u t a ll s u c h p a r ts o f th e c o m m o n l a w , ! a n d su c h o f th e said ac ts, o r p a r ts t h e r e o f a s a r e r e ­ pug n a n t to th i s C o n s titu tio n , a r e ‘h e r e b y a b r o g a t e d ; an d th e L c g i.-lalu r e , a t its first sessgf-n a f t e r T h e a- doption. q f th i s C o n s t i t u t i o n sh a ll ap p o in t th r e e c o m m issio n e r s , w h o s e d u ty i t s h a ll be to r e d u c e in ­ to a w r i t t e n a n d sy s te m a t ic co d e th e w h o le bod y of th e law of tin s sta te , o r s o m u c h an d sueh p a r ts thf-rco. a.® to th e sa i d c o m m issio n e r s shall seetn p r a c ticab le and ex p e d ie n t A n d th e said c o m m is­ s i o n e r s shall specify s u c h a lt e r a t io n s a n d a m e n d ­ m e n t s th e r e in as th e y sh a ll deem prop e r , an d th e y shall at all times make reports of their proceedings to the L e g isla tu r e , w h e n called upon to do so ; and th e L e g islatu r e shall pass law s reg u latin g the te n u r e o f o ffice,, th e filling o f vacancies, th e r e in , an d th e c o m p e n s a ti o n o f th e s a id co m m issio n e r s ; and s h a ll also p rovide for1 th e p u b licatio n of th e said code, p r i o r to its b e in g p r e s e n te d to t h e L e g isla tu r e for a- d option. S e c t i o n I S . A l l g r a n t s r f la n d w i t h i n ' t h i s sta t e , m a d e by th e K i n g o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , o r p e r s o n s a c t ­ in g u n d e r h i s a u th o r it y , a f t e r th e f o u r te e n t h d a y o f O c to b e r , o n e t h o u s a n d seven h u n d r e d a n d seventy- fiv e , s h a ll be null a n d v o id : b.Ut n o th i n g c o n tain e d in th is C o n s titu tio n sh a l l affe c t a n y g r a n t s of land w ith i n th i s sta te , m .ade b y th e a u th o r it y o f th e sa id K in g o r h is p r e d e c e s s o r s , o r sh a ll an n u l an y c h a r ­ te r s to b o d ies p o litic a n d c o r p o r a te, by h im o r th e m m a d e , b e f o r e th a t d a y ; o r sh a ll affect a n y su c h g r a n t s o r c h a r t e r s sin c e m a d e b y th i s sta te , o r by p e r s o n s a c t i n g u n d e r its-a u t h o r i ty , o r sh a ll im p a ir th e ob lig a tio n o f a n y d e b ts c o n t r a c t e d b y th i s sta te , o r in d iv id u a ls, ot b o d i e s c o r p o r a te , o r a n y o t h e r rig h t s o f p ro p e r ty , o r a n y suits-, a c ti o n s , r i g h t s o f a c ­ tio n , o r o t h e r p r o c e e d i n g s i a c o u r t s o f j u s t i c e . , A r t i c l e I I . S e c ti o n 1. E v e r y m a le c it iz e n o f th e a g e o f tw e n ­ ty - o n e y e a r s , w h o shall h a v e b e e n a c it iz e n fo r te n a a y s , a n d an i n h a b i ta n t o f th i s sta t e o n e vo-af n e x t p r e c e d i n g a n y e le c tio n , a n d l o r th e l a s / f o u r m o n t h s a r e s i d e n t .of th e co u n ty w h e r e L** m a y o t t e r h is v o te, sh a ll be e n ti tl e d to vo te a t sp c h e lec tio n in t h e e lec ­ tio n d i s t r i c t of w h i c h r»e s h a ll a t t h e t i m e be a r e s i ­ d e n t, a n d n o t e l s e w h e r e , f o r all officers t h a t n o w a r e or h e r e a f t e r m a y b e elec tiv e by th e peo p le; b u t s u c h c it iz e n s h a l l h a v e b e e n for th i r t y d a y s n e x t p r e c e ­ d i n g th e e le c tio n , a re s i d e n t o f th e d i s t r i c t fro m w h i c h t h e o fficer i s tp be c h o s e n fo r w h o m he of­ fe r s h i s v o te. B u t no m a n o f c o lo r , u n less h e s h a ll h a v e b e e n for th r e e y e a r s a - c itiz e n o f t h i s s t a t e , an d fo r o n e y e a r next, p r e c e d i n g an y e 'e c t i o n shall h a v e b e e n seized an d p o s s e s s e d o f a f r e e h o ld e s t a k e o f t h e ' v a lu e o f \two h u n d r e d a n d fifty d o lla r s , o v e r a n d a- b o v e all d e b ts an d i n c u m b r a n c e s ch a rg e d , th e r e o n , a n d sh a l l h a v e b e e n ac tu a lly ra t e d and\ paid a Tax (h e r e o ir , s h a ll be e n ti tl e d to v o t e a t su c h electro n . A n d n o p e r s o n o f c o lo r s h a ll b e s u b jec t to diretot ta x ­ a t i o n ithless-he s h a ll be s e ized a u d p o s s e s s e d o f s u c h t e a e s t a t e a s afo r e s a id . Section 2 Laws may be passed excluding from the right of suffrage all persons who have been or may be convicted: o f bribery, of larceny, or of any infamous crime; andjctr depriving every person\ who shall make, or become directly or indirectly \infer­ r e d m any bet or wager depending upon the result .ot any election from the right to'vote at such elec­ tion. / <=v/mCu10 j '■^or ft1® purpose of voting, no person hv r« have gainpd or lost a residence, ■a .\f.®11 ot his presence or absence, while employ- »n *,n t”.6, service ot the United States; nor while- ln4 K? navigation ofthe waters ofthis state, °y,9, tn® U u if e d States, or of the high seas; nor wnue a student of any seminary of learning; nor w h ile kept at any alm s house, or other asylum, a t t public expense.; -nor:while confined in any public prison. Section 4. L a w s shall be m ade for ascertaining by proper proofs the citizens who shall b e e n titled to the right of suffrage h ereby established. Section 5. All elections b y the citizens shall He by billot, except for such town officers as hiay bylaw b e directed to. be otherw ise chosen. 'A r t i c l e I I I . Section 1 The legislative power of this state shall bevested in a Senate and Assembly Section 2. The Senate shall consist of thirty-two members,-and the Senators shall be chosen for two years. The Assembly shall ronsist o f one hundred and twenty-eight members, who shall be annually elected Section 3. The.state shall be divided into thirty- two districts, to be called1 Senate Districts, each of which shall choose one Senator. The districts shall be numbered from one to thirty-two inclusive District number one (1) shall c o n s is tpf the coun­ ties o f Suffolk,-'Richmond and Queens. - District num b er tw o (2) shall consist o fthe coun­ ty of Kings. Districts number-three (3) number four (4) num­ ber five (5) and number six (6) shall consist of the city andcounty o fN ew -Y o rk; and theboard of su­ pervisors of said city and county shall, on or before the first day -of May one thousand eight hundred and forty-seven, divide the said; city and county in­ to tho number of Senate Districts to which it is en­ titled, as n ear as may be ofan equal number of in­ habitants, excluding aliens and persons o f color not taxed, and consisting ofconvement and contiguous territory; and no Assembly District shall be divided in the formation of a Semite District. ’The board o f supervisors, wheri they shall have completed such division, shall cause certificates thereof, stating the number and boundaries o f each district, and the po­ pulation -thereof,to be filed in the office o f the Se­ cretary of State, and of the clerk ofthe saiffcity and county. - ■ District number seven (7) shall consist of the counties of W estchester, Eutnarn and Rockland. District number eight (S) shall consist of the counties ofDutchess-and Columbia', • * District number nine (9) shall consist o fthe coun­ ties of Orange and .Sullivan. - District number ten (10) shall consist o f the coun­ ties of Ulster and Greene. District number eleven (11) shall consist of the counties of Albany and Schenectady. t District number twelve (12) shall consist of the county of Rensselaer. District number thirteen (13) shall consist of the counties of W ashington and Saratoga. District number fourteen (14) shall consist o fthe coiinties of W arren, Essex and Clinton. District number fifteen (15) shall consist of the counties o f St Lawrence and Franklin. District number sixteen (16) shall consist of the counties of Herkimer, Hamilton, Fulton and Mont­ gomery. . District, number seventeen (17) shall consist of the counties of Schoharie and Delaware. District number eighteen (IS) shall consist of the counties of Otspgo and Chenango. District number nineteen (19) shall consist ofthe county of Oneida. , District number twenty (20) shall consist of the counties of Madison and Oswego District number twenty-one (21) shall consist of the counties of Jefierson and Lewis. District number twenty-two (22) shall consist of the county of Onondaga. District number twenty-three (23) shall consist of the counties of Cortland, Broome and Tioga.. District number twenty-fouir (24) shall consist of the counties o f Cayuga and W a vne. ’ District number twenty-five (25) shall consist of the coun.ties ol Tompkins, Seneca and Yates.. ' District number twenty-six (26) shall consist of the counties of Steuben and Chemung. District number twenty-seven (27) shall consist of the county of Monroe. District number twenty-eight (28) shall consist of the counties of Orleans, Genesee and Niagara.- District number twenty-nine (29) shall consist of the counties of Ontario arid Li vingston. District number thirty (.30) shall consist of the counties o f Alleganvnnd-Wyoiprng- District number thirty-one (31) shall consist of the county of E rie. District number thirty-two (32) shall consist of the counties of Chatauque and Cattaraugus. Section 4. An enumeration of the inhabitants of the state shall be taken, under the direction of the Legislature, in the year one thousand eisrht hundred and fifty-five, and at the end of every ten years there­ after; and the said districts shall be so altered by the Legislature, at the first session after the return of every enumeration, thateach senate d istrict shall contain, as nearly as may be, ain equal number o f in­ habitants, excluding aliens, amd persons o f color not taxed; and shall remain unaltered until the return of another enumeration, and shall at all times con­ sist o f contiguous territory; and no county shall be divided in tne formation ofa senate district, except such county shall be equitubljy entitled to two or more Senators. Section 5. The members of Assembly shall be ap­ portioned among the several counties o f this state, by the Legislature, as nearly as may be, according to the number o f tlieiv respective inhabitants, exclu­ ding aliens, a n d persons of color not taxed, and shall be chosen by single districts . T h e several boards of supervisors ih such coun­ ties of this state as are now entitled to more than one member of Assembly, shall assemble on the first Tuesday qf January next, ahd divide their re­ spective counties into Assembly districts equal to the number ofmembers of Assembly to which such counties are now severally entitled by law, and shall cause to be filed in the offices of the secretary of state a n d the clerics of their respective counties, a description of such Assembly districts, specifying the number of'each district ana the population there­ of, according to the last preceding state enumera­ tion, as stear as can be ascertained. Each Assem­ bly district shall contain,-as nearly as may be, an e- qual number of inhabitants, excluding aliens and persons of color not taxed, and shall consist of con­ venient and. comiguous territory ; but no town shall bc^divided in the formation of Assembly'diat-ricts. The Legislature, at its first session after the re­ turn of every enumeration, shall re-apportion the members of Assembly among the several counties ofthis state, in mariner aforesaid, atid the boards of supervisors in such counties as- may be entitled, un­ der such re-apportionment, to more than one m e m ­ ber, shall assemble at such time as the Legislature making such re-apportion meat shall prescribe, and divide such counties into .Assembly districts, iu the manner herein directed ; and the apportionment and districts so to be made, shall remain-unaltered until, another enumeration shall be taken under thp provi­ sion^ \of the* preceding sectiom Every county heretofore established and sepa­ r a t e l y o r g a n i z e d , except the c o u n t y o f H a m i l t o n ^ shall always be entitled to one member of .the As­ sembly, and no new county shall be hereafter erect-, e d , n r u e s s i t s p o p u l a t i o n shall e n t i t l e i t t o a m e m b e r . The county of Hamilton shall elect with the coun­ tv o f Fulton *imtil the population of the county.of Hamilton shall, according to- the ratio, be entitled to a member. ' Section 6 The members ofthe Legislature shall receive foe their services a sum not exceeding three dollars a day. from the commencement o f the ses­ sion ; but such pay shall not exceed in the aggregate three hundred dollars for per diem allowance, except in proceedings for impeachment The limitation as to the aggregate compensation shall hot take, effect until the y ear one thousand eight hundred ana fqrty eight. W hen convened in extra session by the Go­ vernor, they shall receive three dollars per dav.— ■ T hey shall also receive the sum of one ^dollar for e- very ten. miles»tliey shall ti-ivel In going to and re­ turn mg from thffir place of meeting on the most usual route..' The speaker o fthe Assembly shall, in his office receive-an additional compensa­ tion equal to one-third ofhis per diem allowance as a member.. . , . ; Section 7. No member of the Legislature shall receive any civil appointment within this state, ot­ to the senate o f the United States, from the Gover­ nor,' tfie Governor and senate, or from the Legisla­ ture; during the term for which he shall have' been elected; and all such .appointments, and all votes given for any such/member, for any such office or appointment, shallbe void.' •Sectioji 8. N o person b e ing a m em b er of-C o n ­ gress, of Tiolding any judicial o r m ilitary office tin­ der the U nited States, shall hold a sSatin the L e g is­ lature. And i f any. person shall, after h is election a s a m e m b e r o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , b e f l e e t e d to C o a - g'vess, o r app o in ted t o a n y office, civ il .or m i li ta r y , u n d e r t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f the' U n ite d S ta t e s , n i s a c ­ c e p ta n c e t h e r e o f s h a ll y a c a te h i s se a t . . Section 9. T h e elections o f senator? and m em b ers of Assembly, pursuant to the provisions o f this Con­ stitution,, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first M onday of N o v em b er, u n le sso ther w ise d i­ rected by the Legislature^ , . < Section 10. A majority o f each hoiise shall consti­ tute a-quorura to do business. E a c h house shall d e­ term ine the rules o f its own proceedings, a n d b e th e judgie o f the electrons, returns and'qualifications of its own m e m h e rs, and shall c h o o se its town o fficers; and the senate shall c h o o se.a tem porary president, when the L ieutenant G o vernor s h a ll n o t attend as president,, o r^hall a c t as. Governor. - * ' ■'*- Section 11. E a c h house shall keep a journal of-iis proqeedings,\ and publish the sam e, except jtuch parts a s m ay reqntre-ae^recy. T h e doors o f each louse stasll be kepf bpeny^except when thef poblic w e lf a r e s h a ll require s e c r e c y .- N e it h e r h o u s e s h a ll, without fne consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days. Section 12. For any speech or debate in either house-ofthe Legislature; the members shall not be questioned in any other place. Section 13, Any bill mav originate in either housg ofthe Legislature, and all bills passed by one house may be amended by the other. Section 14. The enacting clause of all bills shall be “-The people of the state of New-York, repre­ sented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as fol­ lows,” and no law shall be enacted except By .bill. • Section 15. No bill shall be passed unless by the assent, pf a majority of all the members elected to each.hranch of the Legislaturef and the question up­ on the final\ passage shall be takeh immediately up­ on its last reading, and the yeas and naj's entered on the journal. • , , Section 16i No-private or local bill, which rrtay be passed by the Legislature, shall embrace more titan one subject,- and that shall be expressed in the title. Section 17. The Legislature may confer uppn the boards, o f supervisors of the several counties of the state, such* further. p o w e r s of local legislation and administration, as they shall from time to time pre­ scribe. \ A r t i c l e I V . Section 1. The executive power shall hq vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for tvyoye 4 *ri a Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen at the same time, and for the same teVm. Section 2. No person, except a citizen o f the Uni­ ted States, shall be eligible to the office of G overnor; nor shall an y person be eligible to that office, who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and who shall not have been five vears next preceding his election, a resident within this state. Section 3. The Governor and Lieutenant Gover­ nor shall be elected at the times and places of choos­ ing members of the Assembly. The persons re­ spectively having the highest number of voles for Governor and Lieutenant Governor, shall be elect­ ed ; but in case two or more shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor, or for Lieutenant Governor, the two houses of the Legis­ lature, at it's next annual session, shall,'forthwith, by joint ballot, choose one of the said persons so haying an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor, or Jjieutenant Governor. _ Section. 4. The Governor shall be commander- ln-chief of the military and naval forces of the state. He shall have power to convene the Legislature (or the senate only) on extraordinary occasions. lie shall communicate by message to the Legislature, at every session, the condition of the state, and re­ commend such matters-to th»m a s he shall judge expedtent. He shall transact all necessary business with the officers of government, civil and military. i i exPedite all sueh measures as may be re­ solved upon by the Leffi 1-itnre, and shall take care that lhe laws are faithfully executed. He shall, at stajed times, rrcpive for his services a -compensa­ tion to be established by law, which shalj^neitherbe increased nor dimini- lted after his election and du­ ring hi£feontiiitiance in office. Section 5. The Governor shall have the power to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after conviction, ior all offences except treason and cases of tmpeachn)ent, upon_such conditions, and with such restrictions and limitations, as lie may think proper, subject to such regulation as tiny be provi­ ded by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he shall have power to suspend ths executio.ii of the sentence until the case shall be reported to the Legislature at its next meeting, when the Legislature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, direct the execu­ tion of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall annually, communicate to the Legislature each case of reprieve,‘commutation or pardon granted; stating the name of the convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, and the date ofthe commutation, pardon or reprieve. Section 6._Iu case of the impeachment of the Go­ vernor, of his removal from office, death, inability to-discharge the powers and duties-of the said of­ fice, resignation or absence from the state, the pow­ ers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor for the residue ofthe term, or untilthe disability shall cease But when the Go­ vernor shall, with the consent of the Legislature.be out of life state in time of war, at the head of a mili­ tary force thereof, he shall continue commander-in- chief of all the mititarv force ofthe state. S e c t i o n T. TI1C Lieutenant Governor shall pos­ sess the same qualification® or eligibility for office as the Governor. He shall be President ofthe se­ nate, but shall have'ouly a casting vote therein. If duringa vacancy ofthe office of Governor, the Lieu­ tenant Governor shall be impeached, displaced, re­ sign, dip, or become incapable of performing the du­ ties of his office, or be absent from the state, the President of the senate shall act as Governor, until the vacancy be filled, or the disability shall ce.ase. Section 8. The Lieutenant Governor shall, while acting as such, receive a compensation which.shall be fixed by law, and which shall not be indreaspd or diminished during his continuance in office.’1\'' * Section 9. Every bill which shall have passedihe senate and Assembly, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor: if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections' to that house in which it shall have originated; who shall enter the objections at large on their journal and proceed to reconsider it. If af­ ter such reconsideration, two-thirds of the members present, shall agree to puss the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the oilier house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if ap­ proved by two-thirds of all the members present, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the oDjections of the Governor. But in all sueh cases, the votes of both houses-shali be determined by yeas nnd nays, and the names of the members voting for and a- gainst the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any hill shall not be re­ turned by the Governor within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to hint, the same shail be a law, in like manner aS-ifffHtad signed it, unless the Legislature shall, by their ad­ journment, prevent its return; in which case it shall notbeala\v. A r t i c l e Ar. Section 1. The secretary of state, Comptroller, Treasurer and Attorney Genera! shall be chosen at a general election, nnd shall hold their offices fpr two years. Each of the officers in this Article na­ med (except the speaker of the Assembly) shall at stated time,§, during his continuance in office, re­ ceive for his services a Compensation, which shall, not be increased or diminished during the term for which he shall have been elected ; nor shall he re­ ceive, to his use, any fees or perquisites of office, or other compensation. _ . , Section 2. A state'fengineerahd surveyor shall ba -chosen at a general election, and shall hold his .of­ fice two years, but no person shall be elected to said office vvho is not a practical engineer. Section 3. Three Canal Commissioners shall be chosen* at the general election which shall be held npxt after the adoption of this Constitution, one of w h o m ; sh a ll h o ld h i s office fo r on e y e a r , o n e f o r two years, and one for three years. The Commis­ sioners of the Canal\ Fund shall meet at the Capitol o n th e first M o n d a y o f J a n u a r y , n e x t a f t e r s u c h e- lection, and determine by Jot which of said Com­ missioners shall hold his office for one yea'r; w h ich: for two, andi which for three years; ana .there shall be elected annually, thereafter, one Canal Com­ missioner, who shall hold his office for three years. Section 4 . Three Inspectors of State Prisons, shall be elected at the general eiectiomwhich shall be held next after the adoption of this Oon.-titutiori, one. of whom shall liolfi his office for one year,' one for. two years, ana one for three years. The Governor, .Secretary of State, a'nd Comptroller, shall meet at the Capitol ,oif the first Monday of Janu'ary next succeeding, such election, and determine by lot which of said Inspectors shall hold his offieefor one year, which for two.\ and-which for three years ; and there shall be elected annually thereafter one Inspector of State Prisons, who, shall hold his office for three years, said Inspectors shall have the charge and superintendence ofthe State Prisons,‘and shall appoint all’-the officers therein. All vacancies tii the office’of sueh- Inspector shall toe filled by the Governor,, till \the next election- . *\ Section 5. The Lieutenant Governor, speaker of th e A s s e m b ly , S e c r e t a r y \ o f\ S ta t e , -C o m p troller, Treasurer, Attorney General and State Engmeef •and S u r v e y o r , sR a il b e tiie -C c u n m issioners of th e Land Office. ‘ , • • . T h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r , S e c r e t a r y o f S ta t e , Comptroller, Treasurer; an d Attorney General, s h a l l be th e C o m m issio n e r s o f t h e C a n a l F u n d , The Canal Beard shall consist of the Commis­ sioners o f the'Canal Fund,; the State Engineer and Surveyor, an.d the Canal Commissioners Section j 6_.The powers and duties ofthe respec­ tive boards, and of the several officers ill this Arti­ cle mentioned, shall be such as novvare or hereaf­ ter may be prescribed by Jaw , S e c tio n 7, T h e T r e a s u r e r m a y b e s u s p e n d e d frem- office by the Governor, during' the recess of the Le­ gislature, and until'ihirly days after the'commence- ment of thanext session qf thq,Legislature, when­ ever it shall appear J o him that sucfi Treasurer has, in any\ particular, violated his duty. The Governor shall fppejjnt st .competent person fo discharge the duties, of thq office during such suspension of the TreaSiiret.' . “ - . Section 8. All offices for the Jwetghi rig, guagirig, measuring, culling or inspecting any merchandize; nrodiiee, manufacture or commodity, whatever.\ are hereby abolished, and no Such office shall hereafter be created, by law ; b u t npfoingjn ffiis-eeotictn con­ tained, shall abrogate anv office \createdforffie. pur­ pose of-protecting the public health? or th? interests of tbecfateiu its propeityjreVCnue/tolls.orpurcIia- ses, o r o f supplying ptbe peopiet witfi c o r r e c t , stand­ ards of weights anti measures, or shall prevent the creation o f any office for such purposes hereafter. shall hold his office for three y e a r s , a n d his com p e n s a tion sh a ll toe fix e d by la w a n d p a id out of the public Treasury. - . f Section 20. No judicial office/-, except justi­ ces pffhe peace shall receive to his own uSe, any fees e r perquisites of office. . ’ Seciioh-2l, The Legislature,may authorize the judgpoents decrees a n d decisions of any lo® cal infeQoivcourt of record of original civil jurisdict'on, established in a city, to be remnv- ed-fbr review directly info the Court of Ap­ peals- , *. ; Section 22, The Legislature shall provide for the speedy publication .of ati statute'avys, IQ lkjinaiiiiiI R e p o iJ, fjfiS cd, ti»ev.Laj»titd tioja^a p p e a ra tfre pa|b yfelijr, I97'h.a v e 11^ J lave’boen dire b a r- |e d , altcH Q l JhdseiTwebiirgi. ed, 9 4 have fecqye r e j, tw o dollars p e r .w e e k for j f e first.six m o n th s and .one do llar gnd «eefe afteri- w a rds.. P a tie n t Stafos are. received on the s a m e t e r t n ^ a 4 j | ^ e fr< ^ > y e r m p n L “ 4 A rticle Vf» - S e c ti o n !. T h e A s s e m b ly sh a ll h a v e th e p o w e r o f im p e a c h r i ie n t . by ih e vo te o f t h e m a j o r i ty o f a l l th e m e m b e r s elec ted . T h e c o u r t for, t h e tria l o f im p e a c h m e n t s , s h a ll be co m p o s e d o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e S e n a t e , th e S e n a t o r s ,,'o r a m a j o r p a r t o f th e m , a n d tfie j u d g e s o f t h e c o u r t o f a p p e a ls, o r th e m a j o r p a f t \of th e m . O n th e tria l o f a n iriip e a c h - m e n t a g a i n s t t h e G o v e r n o r , th e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r ­ n o r s h a ll n o t a c t ' a s a m e m b e r o f t h e c o u r t . N o j u ­ d icial officer s h a l l e x e r c i s e h is office a f t e r h e sh a ll h a v e been im p e a c h e d , u n ti l h e sh a ll h a v e b e e n a c ­ q u it te d . B e fore th e trial o f a n i m p e a c h m e n t , .the m e m b e r s o f th e c o u r t sh a ll ta k e an o a t h o r affirm a * tio p , t r u ly a n d i m p a r t ia l ly to try t h e i m p e a c h m e n t , a c c o r d i n g to e v i d e n c e ; a n d no p e r s o n sh p ll be c o n ­ victed, w i t h o u t ih e c o n c u r r e n c e o f tw o - t h i r d s o f th e m e m b e r s p r e s e n t . J u d g m e n t i n c a s e s o f im ­ p e a c h m e n t sh a ll n o t e x te n d fu r t h e r t h a n to re m o ­ v a l from office, o r r e m a v a l- f io m office a n d d isq u a l­ ificatio n to ho ld a n d e n jo y a n y office o f h o n o r , t r u s t o r pfofi’t u n d e r t h i s s t a t e ; b u t th e p a r t y im p e a c h ­ ed sh a ll be lia b le to in d i c t m e n t , a n d p u n i s h m e n t a c c o r d i n g to l a w / , . . , S e c ti o n 2- T h e r e s h a h b e a . 'C p y j r t . o f -Appeals^ c o m p o s e d q f e i g h t j u d g t s , o f w h o m 'fo u r sh a l l 0Sr e le c te d by fh e 'e lecto f s r o f the. s t a t e f o r t i g h t y e a r s , an d fo u r selec f e d fro'm th e c la s s o f J u s t i c e s o f the S u p r e m e C o u r t h a t i n g th e s h o r t e s t tim e \to s e r v e : P r o v i s io n sh a ll be m a d e by law , f o r d e s i g n a t i n g One o f Jim n u m b e r elec te d , a s c h i e f j u d g e , an d fo r s e ­ le c t i n g s u c h j u s t i c e s o f th e S u p r e m e C o u r t , fro m tim e lo lim e , .and f o r - s o c la s s if y in g th o s e e le c ted , j h a t o n e sh a ll b e ele c te d ev e r y se c o n d y e a r . S e c ti o n 3. T h e r e s h a l l b e a S u p r e m e C o u r t h a v ­ in g g e n e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n in law a n d e q u ity . S e c ti o n 4. T h e s t a t e sh a ll be d ivided i n t o e ig h t ju d i c ia l d i s t r i c t s , o f w h ic h th e c it y o f N e w - Y o r k sh a ll be o n e ; th e o t h e r s tp be b o u n d e d by c o u n t y lin e s a n d to be co in p r fct an d equ a l in p o p u la t io n a s pearly ns may be. There shall be four Justices o f th e S u p r e m e C o u r t i n e a c h d i s t r i c t , qnd a s m a n y p t o r e i n th e d i s t r i c t c o m p o s e d ol th e city o f N . Y o r k , jis m a y fro n t tim e to tim e be a u t h o r i z e d b y l a w , b u t n o t to e x c e e d in th e w h o le su c h n u m b e r in p r o ­ p o rtion to i t s p o p u la t io n , a s s h a ll toe i n co n f o r m ity -js-ith t h e n u m b e r o f s u c h j u d g e s i n th e re s id u e o f Tie s t a t e in ' p r o p o r tio n to its p o p u la t io n . T h e y [hall be classified so t h a t o n e o f th e j u s t i c e s o f e a c h ‘\stric t sh a l l go o u t o f office a t t h e en d o f e v e r y tw o y e a r s . A f te r t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e i r t e r m s u n ­ der s u c h classifica tio n , t h e t e r m o f tb e i r office s h a l l be e ig h t y e a r s . S e c ti o n 5. T h e le g i s l a t u r e sh a l l h a v e t h e sa m e lo w e r s to a l t e r a n d re g u l a te rh e ju r i s d i c t i o n a n d p r o c e e d i n g i n .l a w a n d e q u it y , a s th e y h a v e h e re- tpfore p o s s e s s e d . 1 S e c ti o n 6. P r e v i -ion m a y be m o d e by law for d e ­ sig n a ti n g fro m tim e to tim e , o n e o r m o re o f th e slid j u s t i c e s w h o i s n o t a j u d g e o f t h e c o u r t o f a p ­ peals, to p r e s id e a t th e g e n e r a l te r m s o f th e said C o u rt to be held in th e se v e r a l d i s t r i c t s . A n y th r e e pr m o r e o f th e said ju s t i c e s , o f w h o m o n e o f the foid j u s t i c e s so designarr-d. sh a ll a lw a y s be one, tnnv hold su c h g e n e r a l te r m s . A n d a n y o n e o r m o r e o f th e ju s t i c e s m a y hold sp e c ial te r m s an d c i r c u i t c o u r t s , a n d a n y o n e o f th e m m a y p r e s id e in c o u r t s o f o y e r an d te r m i n e r in a n y c o u n iy . S e c ti o n 7. T b e j u d g e s o f t h e c o u r t ol a p p e a l s a n d ju s t i c e s o f th e - s u p r e m e c o u r t sh a ll s e v e r a lly r e c e iv e a t sta t e d tim e s fo r tht i r se r v ic e s , a c o m p e n s a ti o n to be esta b li s h e d by law . w h ich sh a ll no t be i n ­ c r e a s e d o r d im in i s h e d d u r i n g th e i r c o n t i n u a n c e in office. S e c ti o n 8. T h e y sh a ll not hold a n y o i h e r office o r p u b lic t r u s t . A ll v o tes for tiih t - r o f th e m , for a n y elective-office (ex c e p t t h a t o f j u s t i c e o f th e s u ­ p r e m e c o u r t , o r ju d g e o f th e co u r t o f a p p e a ls), g iv ­ en b y th e L e g i s l a t u r e o r th e people, sh a ll he void. T h e y sh a l l n o t e x e r c i s e an y p o w e r o f a p p n in t m e h t to p u b lic office. A n y m a le c itizen o f th e a g e of tw e n t y - o n e y e a r s , o f good m o ral c h a r a c t e r , a n d w h o p o s s e s s e s t h e re q u i s it e q u a lific a tio n s o f l e a r n ­ in g nn d al ility , sh a i l be e n ti tl e d to a d m i s s i o n to p r a c t i c e in all t h e c o u r t s o f t h i s s t a t e . S e c t i o n 9. T h e classific a tio n o f th e ju s t i c e s o f th e su p r e m e c o u r t ; th e tim e s a n d p lace o f h o ld ­ in g the. t e r m s o f th e c o u r t o f a p p e a ls, a n d o f th e g e .n e r a l a n d sp e c ial te r m s o f th e su p r e m e c o u r t w ith i n th e sev e r a l d i s t i i c t s , a n d th e c i r c u i t c o u r t s and c o u r t s o f o y e r an d te r m i n e r w ith i n th e sev e r a l c o u n tie s , sh a l l be p r o v id e d fo r by law . S e c i i e n 10. T h e te s ti m o n y in e q u it y c a s e s sh a ll be t a k e n in lik e m a n n e r a s in c a s e s a t law . . Section 11. Jnstieesof th e supreme, court an d ju d g e s o f t h a c o u r t o f a p p e a ls, m a y be r e m o v e d by c o n c u r r e n t r e s o lu ti o n o f b o th H o u s e s o f t h e L e g i s ­ la t u r e , if tw o - t h i r d s o f all t h e m e m b f r s e lected tn th e A s s e m b ly a n d a m a j o r i ty o f a l l ’th e m e m b e r s e lec ted to th e S e n a t e , c o n c u r t h e r e i n . All jn d i c ia l officers, e x c e p t th o s e m e n tio n e d in t h i s s e c t io n , a n d ek c e p t j u s t i c e s of th e p e a c e , an d j u d g e s a n d j u s t i ­ ces o f in f 'e r io r c o u r t s n o t o f r e c o r d m a y be r e m o v e d by th e S p n a t e o n th e re c o m m e n d a t io n o f (h e G o v ­ e r n o r ; b u t no re m o v a l sh a ll be m a d e by v irtu e o f th i s sectio n , u n le s s th e c a u s e th e r e o f be e n te r e d on th e j o u r n a l s , n o r u n l e s s the. party' co m p la in e d of, sh a ll h a v e b e e n se r v e d w i t l v a co p y o f th e c o m ­ p la in t a g a in s t h im , an d shall h a v e h a d an o p p o r t u ­ n ity o f b e i n g h e a r d in h is d e f e n c e . O n th e q u e s ­ tio n o f r e m o v a l, th e a y e s a n d tioes s h a ll be en tere d on th e j o u r n a l s . ■ S e c ti o n 12. T b e j u d g e s o f th q c o u r t o f a p p e a ls sh a ll be elec ted by th e e le c to r s o f t h e sta t e , an d th e ju s t i c e s o f th e su p r e m e c o u r t by th e e le c to r s o f th e sev e r a l ju d i c ia l d i s t i i c t s , a t s u c h tim e s a s m a y be p r e s c r ib e d by law . S e c ti o n 13. I n c a s e th e office o f a n y j u d g e o f th e c o u r t o f app e a ls, or j u s t i c e o f t h e su p r e m e \court sh a ll b e c o m e v a c a n t before ib e e x p i r a t i o n o r th e re g u l a r term fo r w h ic h he w a s elec ted , th e v a c a n ­ cy m a y be filled by a p p o i n t m e n t by th e G o v e r n o r , u n ti l i t sh a ll be su p p lied a t th e n e x t g e n e r a l elec­ tio n o f j u d g e s , w h e r i 'i t sh a ll be filled by elec tio n for t h e re s id u e o f i h e n n e x p i r t d te t m . S e c ti o n 14. T h e r e sh a ll be e lected in e a c h q f the c o u n ti e s o f t h i s sta te , ex c e p t lhe. city a n d c o u n ty o f N e w - Y o r k , o n e c o u n i y ji d g e . w h o sh a ll hold h is office for four.y e n v s . H e sh a ll hold th e c o u n ty co u r t, an d p e if o rin th e d u t i e s o f th e office o f s u r r o ­ g a te . T h e c o u n iy c o u r t sh n l H i a v e su c h j u r i s d i c ­ tio n in c a s e s arisin g in j u s t i c e s court's, a n d in sp e ­ cial ca s e s , a s th e L e g i s l a t u r e m a y p r e s c r ib e ; b u t sh a ll h a v e no o r ig in a l civil j u r i s d i c t i o n , ex c e p t.iri su c h sp e c i a l c a s e s . * T h e co u n ty ju d g e , w ith tw o j u s t i c e s o f th e p e a c e to be d e s i g n a te d a c c o r d i n g t a law ,-m a y h o ld c o u r t s o f s e s s io n s , w ith su c h c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a s .t h e L e g isla tu r e sh a ll p r e s c r ib e , a n d p e if o /t n s u c h o t h e r d u ti e s a s m a y b e r e q u ir e d by law . , T h e c o u n t y j u d g e sh a l l re c e iv e a n a n n u a l sala-* rv, to be fixed by the board o f .supervisors, which sh a ll be n e i t h e r in c r e a s e d n'or d im in i s h e d d u r i n g h is c o n t i n u a n c e in office. T h e J u s t i c e s o f th e p e a c e , f o r s e r v i c e s in c o u r t s o f s e s s i o n s , sh a ll be p a id a p e r d ie m allo w a n c e o u t o f (he -'co u n ty ,treas­ ury. ’ * ■ ' ^ I n c o u n t i e s h a v in g - a p o p u la t io n e x c e e d i n g fo r ty th o u s a n d , t h e L e g i s l a t u r e m a y p r o v id e fdr th e elec­ tio n o f ? .sep a r a te officer to .p e r f p p p u J h e d u t i e s o f tlie offiee o f s u r r o g a te . „ ' - T h e l e g i s l a tu r e m a y c o n f e r e q u it y - j u r isd ic t io n in sp e c ial cases, u p o n th e c o u n t y ju d g e : In f e r i o r lo c a l c o u r t s , o f c ivil arid c r im in a l j u r i s ­ d ic tio n , m a y b'e e s t a b li s h e d toy t h e L e g i s l a t u r e in c i t i e s ; du d -su c h c o u r t s , e x c e p t f o r th e c ities o f N e w Y o r k a n d B u ffalo, s h a l! h a v e a n u n if o rm orgam z a -^ tio n a n d ju r i s d i c t i o n :in su c h cities.. - - S e c ti o n 15. T h e L e g i s i a t u r e indy, on ap p licatio n o f th e - to o a r d q f s u p e r v iso r s pro v id e f o r t h e electio n o f focal officers, n p t to ex c e e d tw o ip a n y c o u n ty , to d i s c h a r g e t h e d u ti e s o f c o u n t y j u d g e a n d o f s u r ­ ro g a t e ; in c a s e s o f th e i r in a b ility o r o f a v a c a n c y , a n d \to e x e r c ise s u c h o t h e r p o w e r s in s p e c i a l e a s e s tis m a v be provided\ b y law . S e c ti o n 16. ‘T h e L e g f s l u tu r e m a y reo r g a n ize th e jn d i c ia l d i s t r i c t s a t t h e first se s s io n a f t e r ib e r e t u r n 1 o f ev e r y e n u m e r a ti o n u n d e r th i s C o n s t i t u t i o n , in th e m a n n e r pro v id e d f o r i n fo u r th s e c tio n o f th i s A r­ ticle an d a t no o t h e r iim ej*a-nd. th e y m a y , a t su c h se s s io n ,, in c r e a s e oje d im in i s h th e n u m b e r o f d i s ­ tric t s , biff s.u c h i n c r e a s e o r d im in u t io n sh-til n o t toe m o r e t h a n o n e d i s t r i c t a t a n y one. tim e . E a c h d is­ tric t shall have foffrjusticesof ib e S u p r e m e C o u rt) tout n o d im in u t io n o f th e d i s t i i c t s sh a ll h a v e th e effect to r e m o v e a j u d g e fro m office. S e c ti o n 17.- T h e e le c to r s o f th e sev e r a l to w n s , sh a l l, a t th e i r a n n u a l J o w n m e e tin g , an d In. su c p m a n n e r a s t h e L e g i s l a t u r e m a y d ir e c t, e le c t j u s t i ­ c e s o f t h e p e a c e , w h o s e term o f o ffice sh a ll be f o u r y e a r s . In c a s e q f a n e lec tio n j p fill a v a c a n c y oc­ c u r r i n g b e f o r e 't h e e x p ira ti o n o f a full te r m th e y .shall h o ld foi- th e r e s id u e o f the\ lih e x p ir e d te r m .— T h e i r n u m b e r a n d c lassificatio n m a y be. r e g u l a te d b y l a w . J u s t i c e s o f th e p e a c e a n d j u d g e s o r j u s t i - c e s o f in f e r io r c o u r t s n o t o f reco r d a n d th e i r c le r k s m a y b e r e m o v e d -after d u e n o ti c e a n d ah o p p o r t u ­ n i t y o f b e in g h e a r d in t h e i r d e f e n c e toy su c h c o u n ­ ty , c i t y o r s ( a t e c o u r t s a s m a y Ibe p r e s c r ib e d by la w , f o r .c a u s e s to be assig n e d , i n th e o r d e r o f r e ­ m o v a l. . , - . , . . . . S e c t i o n IS . A ll ju d i c ia l - o f f ic e r s o f c - i n o a n d v i l - Ia g e s / a n d all s u c h ju d i c ia l officers a s m a y b e cre a ­ te d th e r e in bv law , \ s h a ll be elected a t s u c h r i m e s - a n d in su c h '- m a n n e r a s t h e L e g i s l a t u r e m a y d ir e c t. S e c t i o n 1 9 / C l e r k s o f t h e s e v e r a l \ e d u n t i t s ol th i s S t a l e s h a i f b e c l e r k s o f the: s u p r e m e c o u r t , w ith - S u c h p o w e r s - a n 'd 'd titie s i a s s h a l l - b e oi e s c r i ­ b e d b y l a w . lA cle r k - t o f / b e C o u r t o f A p p e a l s to b e e x - o f f i c i o c l e r k o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t , a n a . to k e e p his o f f i c t o t o i l b e s e a r o f g o v e r n m e n t , s h a l l b e c h o s e n toy t h e e l e c t o r s o f t h e S t a t e ; h e -pose o f in-r' -tiiippTtir mof from in pt.herLari^kaJike,, Sec|ijqtft23. Tribunals of .conciliation may be est:a b l# ;fd , with such powers and dutfes as may be ^ s c r i b e d by law, but such tribxtnals shall ha|S|-fio p o w er to-reader judgm ent tobe tobliga||M ton rite p a rties, .excepkhey vofunia- rily s g b ^ t their gygettbajjsjde the judgm ent, or.assefiyTtehefetO; in th e presence of such tribunal, in.-such eases as shall be prescribed by law. .Section 24. T h e Legislature .at its first ses­ sion after the adoption of this Constitution, shall provide for the appointment oi .three commissioners, whose duty it shall b e to re­ vise, reform, simplify and abridge the rules and practice, p leadings,forms and proceedings of the courts of record of this State, and to re­ port thereon to the Legislature, subject to their adoption and modification from time to tftne. Section 25. T h e Legislature at its first ses­ sion after the adoption of this Constitution, shall provide for the o rganization of the Court of Appeals, and lor transferring to it the busi­ ness pending ih the Court for the Correction of Errors, a n d for the allowance of writs of error and appeals to the C o u rt of Appeals, from the judgments and decrees o f the p resent Court of C h a n c e ry and Supreme Court, and of the courts that may be o rganized under this Constitution. A rticle V I I . Section 1 . A fter paying the expenses of col­ lection, superintendence and ordinary repairs-, there shall be appropriated and set apart in each fiscal y ear, out o fthe revenues o f the State canals, comm encing on the first day ot June, one-thousand eight hundred and forty-six, the sum of one m illion and three hundred thous­ an d 'd o llars until tbe first day of June, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, anfffrom that time the sum of one m illion and s j ven hundred thousand dollars in each fiscal year, as a sinking fund, lo pay the interest and re­ deem the p rincipal ofth a t part ol the State debt calle’d the canal debt, as it existed a t the time first aforesaid, and including three hundred thousand dollars then to be borrowed, until the same shall be wholly p a id ; and the p rinci­ pal and income of the said sinki-ug fund shall be sacredly applied to that purpose. Section 2. After complying with the p rovis­ ions of the. first section of this article, there shall be appropriated and set apart out of the surplus revenues of the State canals, in each fiscal year, commencing on the' first day-of June, one thousand eight hundred and forty- six, the sum 1 of three hundred and fifty thous­ and dollars, u n til the tim e when a sufficient sum shall have been appropriated and set a- part, u n d er the said first section, to p ay the in­ teiest and extinguish the entire\ principal of the c a n a l debt; and after that period, then the sum ofone milliop and five hundred thousand dollars in each iiiscal year, a s a sinking fund, to pay the interest and redeem the p rincipal oi that part ot the State debt called/he General Fund debt, including the debt for loans of the State credit to railr- ad companies which have failed to pay the interest thereon, and also the contingent debL on State stocks loaned lo in- cofporated companies w h ieh have hitherto paid the interesr thereon, whenever and as far as a n y part thereof may become a charge on the T reasury or Genera] Fund, u n til the same shall be wholly paid; and the principal and- income ofthe said last mentioned sinking fund shjtll be sacredly applied-to the purpose afore­ said ; and i f the payment of any part ofthe monie.s to the said sinking fund shall at any time be deferred, by reason\ o f th e .priority re-\ cofnized in the first section of this a rticle, the -sum so deferred, with quarterly interest there­ on, at the then c u rrent rate, shall be paid to the last m enlioned-sinking fund, as socn as it can be done consistently with the just rights of the creditors holding said canal debt. Section 3. A fter p aying the said expenses o f superintendence and repairs o f the canals, and the.sum s appropriated by the first and second sections ofthis article,' there shall be p aid out: of tiie surplus revenues of the canals, to the- Treasury of the State, on or before the thirti­ eth lay of September, in each year, for the use and benefit of the General Fund, such sum, not exceeding two hundred thousand dollars, as m a j be required ro defray the necessary ex- pen'ses’bfthe S tate; and the rem ainder of the revenues of the said canals shall in each fis­ cal ^ear, be applied, in such m anner as the Legislature shall direct, to the completion of theE rie Canal enlargem ent, and the Genesee Valley and Black River canals, u n til the said can ils shall be completed. . I^at-any tim e a f t e r ; he period o f eight y ears from the adoption o£ this Constitution, the revenues o f the State, u n appriated by this ar­ ticle, shall not be sufficient to defray the nec­ essary expenses of thp gvovemm ent, without continuing or laying & d irect tax, the L e g isla­ ture may, at its discretion, supply the deficien­ cy, iii; whole o r in payt, from the surplus rev® enuegof.tbe canals, a fter complying with the provisions o fthe first two sections of this a r ­ ticle, f o r .p a y in g the in te r e s t: a n d extinguish;- ing the ‘principal o f the C a n a l and G e n e ral Fund debt; butthe sunithusappropriated from th e su r p l u s rev e n u e s o f th e c a n a ls shall not exceed annually three h u n d red and fifty thou­ sand dollars, including the sum ot two hundred th o u s a n d dollars,, p r o v id e d f o r by th is section for the.expenses of the government, until the General Fund debt shall be extinguished, or until the Erie Canal e n largem eptand Genesee V alley and B lack.R iver Canals-,shall be eom-- pleted', and after that debt shall be paid, o r the said canals shall be completed, then the sum of six hundred and seventy-two tho u s a n d five hundred dollars, Tor'so m u c h thereof as shall- be-necessary, m ay be a n n u a lly appropriated to defray the expenses of the governm ent. Section 4.* T h e claim s -of the State against any incorporated company to pay the interest and redeem the principal of the stbek of the state loaned or advanced td such company., shall he fairly enforced,,and not released or compromised ; and the moneys arising from such claim s s h a llbe set a p a rt and applied as part of the sinking iund provided in the see® ond section df this article. But the liilie 1 unit­ ed for the fulfillment of a n y condition' of any release o r com p rom ise heretofore made or pro- vidhd for, may\-be extended by* law® . * S e c tio n . 5, If the'sinking ittnds, o r eith e r o f them, p rovided in this article, s h a l l prove in-, sufficient to e n a b le the State* on th e c r e d i t o f such fund, to procure the means to satisfy the cla im s o f thp cred ito r s o f the S t a t e k s they be­ come payable1, the Legislature shall, by equita­ ble taxes, s o i ncrease the, revenues of th e said funds a s to,mak.e 'hem , respeeti vefy, spfficient -perfectly to preserve the p u b lic faiths Every; co n tr ib u tio n o r ad v a n c e to the feanals, o r their debt, from any , «ource, other than their dirept revenues, shall, wi,th q u a rterly interest, at, t h e rates, th e n c u r r e n t , b e rep a id -in to the T r e a s u r y , f o y J h e u s e o f the State,..Q .^t/of th ? can a l r e v e n u e s ,as sopn as it-can be d q n e c o n ­ sisten tly w ith t h e ju s t r i g h j s / ^ lh e cred ito r s h o ld in g - th e eaicl c a n a l debti * S e c tio n 6 'T h e L e g i s la t u r e sh a ll p o t se ll , lease, o r oth e r w ise dispose o f a n y o f th e c a n a l s 1 of-the S t a t e ; b u t th e y sh a ll r e m a in th e proper® ty o f th e S t a t e a n d u n d e r i t s m a n a g e m e n t, for-. ever.. - -... . ' ... Section 7. T h e Legislature s h a ll nffver sell or dispose of tffe-salt springs, bejphging to this Slate. .T h e lands contiguous thereto and w h ich j n a y be n e c e s s a r jr tan d j c o n v e n i e n t for th e use' o f t h e s a l t s p r i n g s , may-Be. s o ld by au- tfedrtty o f law and under /h e d ir e c tio n of the com m issio n e r s o f t h s lan d offiec, f u r the pur- S e c tio n 87 N o m on.eys s h a ll ev e r be p a icfo u t o f t h e T r e a s u r y of th is S ta te , o r 'a n y o t its funds; o r lan y - o f th e fund s fin d e r its m a n a g e - m e n tjS e x c e p rin p f ir s u a n e e o f a n a p p r o p r i a ti o n -by la-Wp n f i f u n l e s s s u c h p a y m e n t be\ m a d e *m tb in t w a y e a r s n e x t a f ter th e passage o f s u c h a p p r o p r j ^ m n , a e t ; r a n d qvery. su c h law ,, m a ­ k in g a ue\Y appxpprjation, f i r r c o n tin u in g o r re v iv in g a i t % p p ^ i a f i © b ^ s h a l l distinctly spec­ ify the sifm approprtatfeCl, an d the object :tp w h ich it is to be applied* an d i t sh a ll not be suffiiceht f o r s u c h l a w j o l f e i ’e r To a n y other law to fix s u c h ’surri. ’ *. . , s arising there- venient; but by rn ■aifhoj any individua|:.asso^j:ipp or corpora- Stalp mfiy, to meet. casUal. , qr for e x p e n d s debts, but such debts, direct and contingent, sing-ly pr in the aggre­ gate, shall notat any time, exceed o n e miliibn of dollars; and the moneys arising from the loans creating sueh debts/shall be applied' fu the-.-piirpose for which they were obtained, or to repay the debt so contracted, and la no other purpose whatever. - ^ Section i l . In addition to the above limited power to contract debts-, the State may Yon-, •tract debts to:.repel invasion, suppress insurrec­ tion, o r defend the State.in W a r : but themoh- ey a rising from the contracting'of such debts shall be applied to the purpose for which it was raised, or to repay .sueh-debts, and to no other purposes whatever. Section 12 . Except the debts specifiedin the tenth and eleventh sections of this article, ho debt shall be hereafter contracted by or on be­ half Ol this State,\unless such debt shall be au­ thorized by a law, for some single w o rk or ob­ ject, tobe distinctly specified therein ; and such la w shall impose and provide for the collection o f a direct a n n u a l tax to pay, and sufficient to j>ay the interest on such debt as\ it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt within eighteen y ears from the time of the contracting thereof. No such law shall take effect u n til it shall, a t a general election, h ave been submitted to the people, and have received a m a jority of a ll the voles cast for and against ir, at s u c h elec­ tion-. . On the final passage of sucli bill in either house oftlfie Legislature, the question shall be taken by eyes ahd noes, to be duly entered ou the journals thereof, and shall he: “ S h a ll this bill pass, and ought the same to receive, the sanction o! the people V’ - T h e Legislature maj* a t a n y time, after the approval of such law by the people, if no debt shall have been contracted in pursuance thereof, repeal the sam e ; and may at any time, bylaw , forbid the contracting of any-fur­ ther debt or liability under such law ; but the tax imposed by such act, in proportion to the debt and liability vvhich may have been con­ tracted, in pursuance of such law, shall rem ain in force and toe irrep.ealitole, and.be annually collected, until the proceeds Ihereof shall have made the provision herein before specified to .pay and discharge the interest and principal o f such debt and liability. T h e money arising from any loan ot stock creating Such debt o r liabiii ty, shall be applied to the work or object specified in the act au­ thorizing such debt or liability, or for the re­ paym ent of such debt or liability, and\.fox fiQ other purpose whatever. No suchlaw shall be submittcff to'be voted on, within three months a fter its passage, pr. a t any g eneral election,/when any o ther law, or any b ill.or a n y amendment to the Constitution shall be submitted to be voted for or against. Section 13. Every law which imposes, con- Jinues o r revives a tax, shall distinctly state the tax. and the object to vvhich i ti s to be applied; and it shall not be sufficient tp refer to any oth­ er law to fix such tax or object. Section 14. On the final passage, in either house o f the Legislature, ot every act whieh imposes, continues,or revives a tax, or creates a debtor charge, or-m a k e s, continues or re­ vives any appropriation cf public o^trust-mon- ey or properly, or releases, discharges, or com­ mutes any claim or demand of the Stale, the question shall be taken by ayes ancl noes, which shall be duly entered on the jour­ nals, and three-fifths ofall the members elected to e ither house, shall, in all such cases, be nec­ essary to constitute a quorum therein. A rticle'V II I. Section 1 . Corporations may b e formed un­ der general laws,; but shall hot he created by special act, except for municipal purposes, a n d in cases wherein the judgment ol the Legisla­ ture, the objects of the corporation cannot toe attained under general laws. All general laws and special acts passed p u rsuant to this section, may be a ltered from time to time or repealed. Section 2r Dues from corporations shall be secured by such individual liability o l the cor­ porators and other means as may be prescribed by law. v Section 3. T h e term corporations as used in this article, shall be construed to.include all associations and joint-stock companies h a v ing any o f the p o w ers o f priviliges o f corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships. A n d all corporations shall have the right to sue a p d shall be subject to be sued in all courts in like cases as natural.persons. Section 4. T h e Legislature, shall have no pow e r to pass any act granting any special charter for banking purposes: but corpora­ tions or associations m ay be formed for such purposes under general laws. Section 5. T h e Legislature shall have no power to pass any law sanctioning in any man­ ner, directly o r 'in directly, the suspension.,of specie pa 3 rmeots..Py any peivon, .assoclation-xxr corporation issuing bank notes o f any descrip­ tion. - . . - . _ . „ Section C. T h e L e g is lature s h a ti p rovide toy law .for the registry of all bills or notes issued or p u t in circulation as money, and shal ( r e ­ quire ample security for the redemption o f th e sam e in specie. • \ , Section 7. The stockholders in every corpo­ ration and joint-stock association for b a n k ing purposes, issuing bank notes or any, kind of paper credits to circulate as money, a fter the first'day.of January, one thousand eight hun­ dred and fifty, shajl.be individually responsi­ ble to the am o u n t of their respective share,.or shares of stock in any such corporation or a s ­ sociation, for all its debts and liabilitiesfif ev­ ery kind, contracted a fter the said first day \of January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty. Section 8 . In case ofthe insolvency of qny bank .or.banking association, the bill-holdqrs thereof.shallbe entitled to preference in/nay- inent, over a llpthef creditors of soch K a fir tor association. . { 'Section 9. I t shall be tbe duty of the Legis- latnfe to p rovide for foe organization o f cities and incorporated villages, a iidlo restrict their pO'wer o ftaxation, a ssessm ent,borrow ing mon­ ey, contracting debts-and loaning their credit, so as to p revent abases i n assessments, and in contracting debt toy Such m u n ic ipal corpora­ tions. 'a ' ', ® - -A jrt.lcXe XX,,- , > Section 1 .JT h e capital fiftihe Common Scb'oorYund; the capital of the Literature Fund, and tbe capital of the U n i t e d Stales I)epo8ite Fufid, shall be r e s p e c t i v e l y preser­ ved\ inviolate. The revenue* of the said .Corntnon Scbool Fund shall be. appliedup iHe su pport of com mon schools;' foe reve­ nues of tbe eard Literature Fuad shall be applied to ihe s u p p o r t o f academics, and-the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars of ihe revenues oftbe Uaited Stales Depostfe F und shall each year he appropriated to and piade a p a r t o f the capital of the said Couitnon School Fund, _ •....• v • , . » -A? i tide* } Section 1. Sheriff?* clerks of counties, including the register and clerk of thexuty aud county of New-York, coroners, and district attorney?, shall be chosen, by